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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2022
Volume 9 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 445-604

Online since Thursday, December 29, 2022

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Story of stethoscope—Are we near the end of the story? p. 445
Sushil Kumar
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Histopathological finding of vesiculobullous lesions of skin in relation to their clinical presentation: Prospective study from a tertiary care center Highly accessed article p. 448
Sudarshan Gupta, Amit V Varma, Bela Sharda, Kamal Malukani, Garima Malpani, Harshita Sahu
Background: Vesiculobullous disorders (VBDs) are extant with diverse clinical manifestations. Vesicles and bullae are fluid-filled cavities present within or beneath the epidermis. They are autoimmune blistering disorders in which autoantibodies are directed against target antigens present in the epidermis and dermo-epidermal junction. Objective: Evaluation of the various clinicodemographic profile of patients with a pattern of distribution (subtypes) of VBDs of the skin and assess the association between clinical aspects and histological changes in vesiculobullous lesions of the skin. Materials and Methods: The study material constituted 93 cases of VBDs out of 936 skin biopsies reported over two and a half years (January 2016 to June 2018) from the tertiary care center. A detailed history of the patients was taken, and a complete physical and dermatological examination with findings including clinical diagnosis was recorded. Histopathological examination (incisional/excisional/punch biopsy) was done in each case. The clinico-demographic evaluation was done and the results were correlated with histopathological findings. Results: Vesiculobullous lesions constituted 10.06% of all skin biopsies. The majority of cases were of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) 30 (32.25%) followed by 16 (17.2%) of bullous pemphigoid. In 83 cases (89.24%) histopathology findings were consistent with clinical diagnosis. Out of 34 cases that were diagnosed clinically as PV , the histopathological study proved 30 cases (88.23%) as PV. Conclusion: Vesiculobullous lesions of the skin are a heterogeneous group of disorders. It is essential to differentiate each pattern of subtype based on clinical examination and histopathological findings. Histopathological diagnosis with clinical correlation plays a major role in arriving at the diagnosis.
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A morphometric study of spinoglenoid notch, subcoracoacromial arch, and spinous process of the scapula on shoulder impingement p. 459
Senthil Ganesh P Kannappan, Ishwar B Bagoji, Senthil Kumar
Introduction: Morphometric study of spinoglenoid notch, coracoacromial arch, and another measurement of the scapulae are required to understand the reason for spasms of common muscle due to supraspinatus tendinitis, nerve compression over the spinoglenoid notch. Therefore, the aim of this study was to discuss the subcoracoacromial arch, deviation of the spinous process, and measurement of the spinoglenoid notch. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Department of Anatomy, Sri Venkateshwaraa Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India on 70 scapulae that include 58 non-articulated scapulae and 12 articulated scapulae. All the measurements were performed with a vernier caliper and the alignment of the spinous process of the scapula was measured with a goniometer. All the measurements are compared on both sides. Results: All the measurements were performed and presented as mean with standard deviation. We found the variation of diameter between the left and right sides. Spinoglenoid notch diameters were noted as anterior to posterior right 2.97 ± 0.37 cm, left 3.06 ± 0.56 cm and medial to lateral right 1.36 ± 0.14 cm, left 1.4 ± 0.08 cm. Subcoracoacromial arch was observed as right 1.85 ± 0.23 cm and left 1.92 ± 0.4 cm. The direction of the spinous process of the scapula was noted as right 21.50º ± 8.50 and left 18.8º ± 7.89. Conclusion: The present morphometric study findings may give a different approach to supraspinatous tendinits, shoulder instability, and dislocation cases due to morphometric changes present in the spinous process, acromion process, glenoid cavity, and spinoglenoid notch of the scapula. These morphometric studies on scapula can help radiologists, orthopedicians, and physiotherapists to plan patient management.
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Hermeneutic phenomenology of lived experience of family caregivers of critically-ill patients sustained by healthcare technologies in Benin City, Nigeria p. 465
Olaolorunpo Olorunfemi, Chinomso Ugochukwu Nwozichi
Background: Critical illness causes a severe financial impact on households not only because of illness-related inability to work but also because of the cost of medical care. Although the patients have the potential for recovery, they are usually presented with a life-threatening situation. Our study aimed to explore the lived experience of family caregivers caring for critically-ill patients. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study using a hermeneutic phenomenological design, to explore the lived experience of ten family caregivers caring for critically-ill patients admitted to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin-city in 2022. This study followed a hermeneutic phenomenological design using an in-depth interview of ten family caregivers who met the inclusion criteria: a family member who participated actively in the care was included. Data were collected, transcribed, and analyzed using Nvivo software and Paul Ricoeur’s theory for interpretation. Results: Based on Paul Ricoeur’s theory of interpretation, five themes were identified as the experience of family caregivers: caring neglect, psychological support, and words of encouragement, lack of confidence in nursing intervention, hopeless situation, and financial burden. Conclusion: This study shows that understanding the experience of family caregivers provides better and quality care. It also found that the hospital management needs to be aware of the identified caring neglect among family caregivers and provide a comprehensive health policy to accommodate their physiological needs while in the hospital
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Effect of dynamic cupping therapy vs. vibrating foam roller on pain, range of motion, function, and quality of life in elderly with subacute and chronic osteoarthritis of knee: A randomized controlled trial p. 472
Vijayalaxmi Kanabur, Anil R Muragod
Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a frequent degenerative disease of joints. The prevalence is approximately 28% among the Indian elderly. Recently complementary and alternative medicine therapies have been used in managing pain and disability. Dynamic cupping therapy is one of the forms used nowadays. Foam rolling and vibration therapy is also a popular intervention in musculoskeletal conditions such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and low back pain. Nowadays, these two have been combined for the development of vibrating foam rollers. Objectives: This research aimed to compare the result of dynamic cupping therapy to that of a vibrating foam roller on pain, range of motion, function, and quality of life in elderly with sub-acute and chronic KOA. Materials and Methods: The research was carried out on 45 subjects with subacute to chronic KOA who were given thrice a week sessions for 4 weeks’ intervention. Through the randomized method, subjects were divided into a conventional group, dynamic cupping group and vibrating foam roller group outcome measures Numeric Pain Rating Scale, knee range of motion, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and brief Older People's Quality of Life Questionnaire (OPQOL-brief) were used. Results: Wilcoxon rank test revealed a pre-post difference in all three groups with significant P-values which were <0.05 and heterogeneously favored different outcome measures used. Kruskal–Wallis test revealed no difference between the groups. Conclusion: This study concluded that dynamic cupping therapy and vibration foam roller protocols used for the management of KOA are equally effective.
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Posterior malleolus fracture fixation in ankle injuries: A clinical study p. 480
Rutvik D Dave, Parag M Tank, Nimish B Patel, Poojan V Shah
Introduction: Posterior Malleolar fractures are relatively rare and a part of complex ankle injuries. Trimalleolar fractures affect the stability of the weight-bearing ankle joint. Management of posterior malleolar fractures is a challenge. Aims: This study aimed to examine the radiological and clinical outcomes of the management of posterior malleolar fractures in adults. Settings and Design: This is an original research retrospective studyMaterials and Methods: Eleven patients underwent fixation of ankle fractures with fixation of posterior malleolus as needed using screws or plates. Surgical outcomes were examined in follow-up with an average follow-up of 21 months using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) score and with radiological correlation at each follow-up. Results: In our series, 27% of patients had 44B type injury and 73% of patients had 44C type injury as per AO/OTA classification. The average AOFAS score was 90.45 for the series and the score for patients treated with direct reduction of the fragment was better than for those treated with indirect reduction. The average score for patients managed with screws was better than for those treated with plates in our series. 82% of patients showed excellent to good outcomes with one patient having an infection and one patient having moderate to severe pain. Conclusion: Anatomical reduction of posterior malleolar fragment leads to better long-term functional outcomes and a stable ankle joint with early mobilization.
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Voluntary blood donations in Navi Mumbai, India: Experience in coronavirus disease pandemic p. 485
Sumedha Prakash Shinde, Ankita Shashikant Shende, Renuka Chawla, Arvind Janardhan Vatkar
Introduction: In India, voluntary blood donation camps (VBDCs) are a key supply of blood and its products. Conducting blood donation drives was challenging in Navi Mumbai due to the widespread lockdown during the coronavirus disease (COVID) outbreak. Study Type: This was a retrospective study. Materials and Methods: To relieve the anxieties and apprehensions of the blood donor population, extensive confidence-building efforts were required. Various safety measures and standard operating procedures were also included, as well as training for VBDC organizers and medical personnel. We studied the blood donations done at our institute on a retrospective basis from blood bank records. Results: Our study showed a 7% increase in outdoor VBDC donations in 2021 over the previous year 2020. However, according to the advice of the local transfusion council, promoting in-house donations raised their number by a stunning 33% in 2021. Conclusion: Even during the COVID pandemic, confidence-building methods and precautions helped restore VBDC’s legitimacy and increase donation numbers by a marginal extent.
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Morphometric and biomechanical analysis of gracilis and semitendinosus tendons: A cadaveric study in the South Indian setting p. 491
Pulimi Vineel, Ramesh Kumar Subramanian, T Muthu Kumar
Background: Semitendinosus and gracilis muscle tendons are among the most frequently used grafts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery. Gracilis is also frequently used in breast reconstruction as well as in upper and lower limb reconstruction as a free graft. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 human cadaver lower limbs were studied of 30 adults (12 men and 18 women) who have been embalmed at a tertiary care institution. Those cadavers whose lower limb had undergone surgery in the past and those with concomitant pathology that would have affected the local anatomy were excluded. Gracilis and semitendinosus tendons were taken out of embalmed remains after the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues had been carefully dissected. Results: It was observed that the maximum load of all the semitendinosus tendons studied had a mean value of 768.2 ± 130.4 N. The semitendinosus tendon’s maximal load in males ranged from 698.4 to 1133.9 N. However in females, the semitendinosus tendon’s maximal load ranged from 589.5 to 780.0 N. Conclusion: The topographical and morphometric data from this study can be utilized as a database of anthropological parameters for the Semitendinosus and Gracilis muscle tendons of a population in a south Indian setting,
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Comparative, observational study of the use of artesunate injections along with standard-of-care treatment versus only standard-of-care treatment in moderate and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome cases of COVID-19-positive infections p. 495
Babita A Ghodke, Ashok Ghodke, Kiran Mali, Pooja Thorat
Introduction: COVID-19 is a type of coronavirus disease belonging to the family Coronaviridae. In late December 2019, this virus emerged from Wuhan, Hubei province, China, and resulted in an outbreak in China and expanded globally. In India, the mortality rate today was 521,691 till the date-time of writing this article. Several therapeutic agents have been evaluated for the treatment of COVID-19. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based comparative, observational study of the use of artesunate injections with standard-of-care (SOC) treatment (group A) versus only SOC (group B) treatment in moderate-to-severe cases of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients, on a total of 130 patients (comparative group of 65 patients each). The study was done on hospitalized COVID-19-positive moderate and severe cases of ARDS from October 2020 to June 2021 at MGM Hospital and Research Centre, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Results: One hundred and thirty patients were divided into two groups of 65 each; group A was compared with group B; group A received SOC with artesunate injections and group B received only SOC treatment. The mean age of patients in group A was 57.3 ± 12.5 years (standard deviation [SD]: 54.2–60.3) and in group B was 55.8 ± 12.5 years (SD: 52.8–58.9). Diabetes mellitus was the most comorbid condition. The inflammatory markers, respiratory rate, and SpO2 improved in group A as compared to group B. The proportion of patients progressing to noninvasive and invasive ventilation was more in group B as compared to group A (P < 0.05). About 93.8% of patients (61 patients) recovered in group A compared with 72.3% of patients (47 patients) who recovered in group B. The overall death in group A was 6.2% (four patients) and 27.7% (18 patients) in group B (P < 0.05), indicating the proportion of dead patients is significantly more where only SOC treatment was given. Conclusions: Artesunate injection administration accelerated recovery in our patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 disease by controlling hyperimmune response. The clinical improvement was seen by decreased levels of inflammatory markers, reduced respiratory rate, and improved oxygen saturation and showed significant survival in group A compared with group B. Artesunate injections were given 2 mg/kg body weight diluted in 1 mL 5% sodium bicarbonate solution as a bolus followed by 1 mg/kg body weight after 6 h and 2 mg/kg body weight with 1 mL sodium bicarbonate solution for next 2 days at an interval of 24 h. Patients tolerated the injections well and recovery improved, so artesunate can be considered a therapeutic option in moderate and severe cases of COVID-19 ARDS.
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Impact of breastfeeding on respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in infants of Muslim mothers of Kolkata, India p. 502
Mohammed Hossain, Soumendra N Talapatra, Nirmal Mondal, Suparna Sanyal Mukherjee
Background: Breast milk contains some proteins whose functions are not nutritive but anti-infective, which prevents infants from infections. Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate an association between the occurrence of diarrhea and respiratory tract infection (RTI) and breastfeeding among infants of Muslim mothers in Kolkata. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among mother–infant pairs of a total of 540 numbers in Muslim-dominated urban slums of Kolkata. The study period was from November 1, 2017, to October 31, 2018. Results: The findings indicated that 82.22% of breastfed infants had no diarrhea, and the absence of RTI was observed in 69.81%. It was also noted that both episodes of diarrhea and RTI in infants become less when the duration of breastfeeding increases. The study also significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03) revealed that the occurrence of diarrhea and RTI was found to have lower incidence in colostrum-fed babies. Out of 391 colostrum-fed babies, about 85.42% had no diarrhea, and the absence of RTI was noticed in 72.12%. In conclusion, breast milk gives protection to babies against diarrheal diseases and RTI. It is the most appropriate food for infants. Conclusions: It is concluded that the prevention of RTI and diarrhea in infants, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), early initiation of breastfeeding, and avoidance of bottle feeding should be the best practice to be recommended. To explore appropriate intervention strategies for reinforcing early initiation and continuation of EBF from birth to 6 months of life.
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Assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of Tridax procumbens in wistar rats p. 509
Sandeep Prakash, Rajesh Kumar Suman, Gulab Chandra, Priti Yadav, Manish Kumar
Background: Tridax procumbens Linn. is a spreading herb found throughout India. Tridax procumbens is known for several potential therapeutic effects like antiviral, antioxidant, anti-infective, wound healing, insecticidal and anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic. Novel therapies for inflammation are essential to overcome the adverse effects of existing anti-inflammatory drugs. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity in the experimental animal. Objective: To evaluate anti-inflammatory efficacy in experimental animalMaterials and Methods: Tridax procumbens plant leaves were taken for the study. The Plant extraction was prepared by using the Soxhlet apparatus. The ethanolic extract was used as a test drug. Indomethacin and Dexamethasone were used as control drugs. Wistar rats weighing 150g to -200g were used in the study. Results: At dosages of 200 and 400 mg kg-1, the ethanolic leaf extracts of Tridax Procumbens demonstrated substantial anti-inflammatory activity against Irish Moss-triggered inflammation. After 3 hours, 400 mgkg-1 showed a significant reduction in inflammation (48 percent), with the impact increasing after 3 hours (52 percent). The anti-inflammatory efficacy of Tridax Procumbens ethanol (EtOH) extracts was substantial and comparable to that of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). Tridax procumbens ‘s Ethanol (EtOH) leaf extract at a dose of 200 and 400 mgkg-1, demonstrated considerable anti-inflammatory action. The average weight of granulomatous surrounding tissue in the threading was considerably smaller in the Tridax procumbens extraction group after 7 days than in the comparison group. The 400 mg kg-1 dose was shown to be the most effective of the two. the greatest reduction in the production of granuloma tissue. Tridax procumbens at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg resulted in substantial reductions in granuloma weights of 38.16 ± 0.04 (7.4 percent inhibition) and 34.58 ± 0.04 (16.1 percent inhibition), respectively. The lower dose of 400 mg/kg resulted in a little lesser reduction in granumola weight than the conventional medication dexamethasone (28.92 ± 0.04). (29.8 percent inhibition). Conclusion: The present study concludes that Tridax Procumbens possess anti-inflammatory effects in animal models.
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Seroprevalence of acute leptospirosis in a tertiary care hospital of western India p. 517
Bhumika Baveja, Meghna S Palewar, Suverna Joshi, Rajesh Karyakarte
Background: Leptospirosis is a widespread re-emerging zoonotic disease, especially in developing countries. According to World Health Organization, despite being severe, the disease is neglected in most endemic countries because of a lack of information and awareness about the extent of the problem. Objective: The objective was to study the seroprevalence and epidemiology of leptospirosis with its biochemical correlation in the general population in Pune, Maharashtra. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective observational laboratory-based study over 1 year from January to December 2020 in a tertiary care hospital in western India. A total of 561 blood specimens received during 1 year for the diagnosis of fever were processed for Leptospira IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: A total of 111 of 561 blood specimens that were received during the study period tested positive for IgM antibody against Leptospira. The seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. was found to be 19.78%. In seropositive patients, the age ranged from 4 to 77 years. The highest seropositivity was observed in the age group of 21–30 years (42%). There were 34% (n = 38) males and 66% (n = 73) females, among those who tested positive. Seroprevalence in Pune was highest in the months of June–August. Renal function tests were deranged in 44 (39.63%) patients (serum creatinine > 1.5 mL). Hyponatremia and hypokalemia were observed in 37.84% and 21.62% of patients, respectively. In liver function tests, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) both were deranged (SGOT > 40 U/L; SGPT > 56 U/L) in 36 (32.43%) patients, whereas SGOT alone was deranged in additional 18 patients (48.64%). Serum bilirubin was deranged in 65.45%. Coinfection was observed with chikungunya, dengue, and malaria in 7.2%, 6.3%, and 0.90% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: Because morbidity is high in this infection, early diagnosis of leptospirosis is essential because antibiotic therapy provides the greatest benefit when initiated early in the course of illness.
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Pattern of comorbidities and clinical profile of young adults who died due to severe coronavirus disease: A descriptive study p. 522
NC Mary Grace, Shinas Babu, Anoop Joseph, Dayan Jacob, Allen S Benjamin, V Anaghajyothi, Sanjay Pulpandi, Crisanta Jacob
Introduction: Mortality due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a significant problem among the non-elderly population. Aims: The primary objective was to estimate the prevalence of comorbidities among the deceased in the age group of 18–64 years and the secondary objective, was to describe their clinical profile. Settings and Design: The study setting was a tertiary care center catering to COVID-19 patients. This was a record-based descriptive study. Materials and Methods: Sampling strategy and Sample size: The formula used for sample size calculation is Z2 * P(1 – P) / d2. The sample size required was 97. The study period was from July 1 to November 30, 2021. Data collection: Demographic data including comorbidities, and clinical and laboratory features were studied. The laboratory investigations were done on the day of admission, and either on the last day or one day before death were taken for analysis. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was carried out in IBM SPSS Version 26. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Correlation tests were used for analysis. Results: The majority of the patients had more than one comorbid condition. The parameters which showed significant variation as the illness progressed were lymphocyte count, total protein, and albumin. Conclusion: Special vigilance should be kept while managing young patients with comorbidities. Lymphocyte count and serum albumin can be helpful in prognostication.
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Association between sleep quality and stress among medical students of a rural indian tertiary care setting p. 530
Panneerselvam Periasamy, Suganthi Vajiravelu, Sasikala Gunasekaran, Ragavendrasamy Balakrishnan, Janani Manivannan
Background: Due to the rigorous academic standards and demanding professionals, the medical field is thought to be a stressful subject of study. This has a negative impact on the student’s mental and physical health. The long-term effects of this study will have an impact on identifying major issues that our students are facing, which will ultimately improve the level of medical treatment offered by future doctors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2020 at a tertiary care institution in Tamil Nadu, India for three months. After getting the necessary ethical permissions from the institution with reference number GEMC/2020/002, the undergraduate students from the first year to the internship were included in the study. Results: The educational status of the students indicated that around 147 (31.1%) of respondents belonged in the first year. The mean + Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was observed to be 6.33 + 2.13, where undesirable sleep quality was predominant among 370 (78.3%) of the respondents with a p-value of less than 0.0001. The majority of the students (70.1%) have normal levels of stress which were significant with a p-value of 0.0027. Conclusion: Medical students experience poor sleep and ongoing stress, which can result in harmful behaviors like overindulging in junk food and a reduced likelihood of exercising. They are undeniably more prone to developing chronic illnesses. If these issues are not addressed, they will affect the medical care that is given to their incoming patients.
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A comparative assessment of the level of stockouts of modern family planning services in private and public health facilities in Nigeria p. 534
Ali J Onoja, Felix O Sanni, Sheila I Onoja, Aisha Abu
Background: The use of family planning (FP) methods and stockouts of contraceptives are major challenges to the FP program in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the level of stockouts of contraceptives in Nigerian health facilities. This survey was carried out in 767 health facilities offering FP services across all six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving a quantitative technique. Data were collected from 116 private and 651 public health facilities in Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the facilities, and a physical inventory was taken. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS, version 25.0. Results: The stockout rate in the last 3 months was 63.8% in private and 47.5% in public health facilities (P = 0.001), whereas stockouts on the visit day were 63.8% in private and 51.0% in public facilities (P = 0.011). On the day of the visit, the stockout rate in private health facilities ranged from 9.3% to 26.5%, whereas it ranged from 5.3% to 24.2% in public health facilities. The main causes of stockouts of some contraceptives are low/no demand and a lack of supply. Conclusions: This study found a high level of stockouts of FP services in private and public health facilities, but higher in private facilities. Both the poor supply and low demand for FP services in Nigeria require the attention of policymakers and health officials.
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Etiological profile, prescribing pattern of antibiotics and clinical outcomes of pneumonia patients in a tertiary care hospital in South India during 5-year period p. 540
Jerrin Reji Mathew, Shiyona Noyal, Sijin T Biju, Siby Joseph, Amit P Jose
Background: Pneumonia is one of the most important and serious lower respiratory tract infections, which requires implacable attention. This work aimed to document the causative organisms, antibiotics used, and outcome of pneumonia patients hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in the medical departments of a tertiary care teaching hospital for 5 years. Demographic details and clinical details including pertinent laboratory values of patients diagnosed with pneumonia were documented and analyzed using a specifically designed data collection form. Results: The study was conducted on 190 patients. The average age of the study population was 56.7 ± 22.6 years and there was a male preponderance of 111(58.4%) patients. Klebsiella pneumonia was found to be the most frequently isolated pathogen in 12.5% of the sputum culture, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii in 10.22% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 9.09%. The most commonly prescribed empirical antibiotics were beta-lactam antibiotics mostly in combination with macrolides for synergy irrespective of Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) classes. Definitive therapy was classified based on World Health Organization (WHO) Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) classification of antibiotics, watch category antibiotics were prescribed according to culture report and reserve antibiotics were prescribed only in those cases where watch category antibiotics were resistant. On analyzing PSI of community-acquired pneumonia (176 patients), most of the patients in the study belong to class 4: 61 patients (34.7%) and class 5: 44 patients (25%). For the high-risk patients (PSI class 4 and 5), mortality was approximately 3.8% (4 of 105) and for low-risk patients, there was zero mortality reported within 30 days. Conclusion: Gram-negative bacteria were the major pathogens causing Pneumonia in the study site contradictory to the data from developed countries. Identifications of pathogens and appropriate antibiotic therapy based on PSI score can bring down the duration of hospital stay and mortality of patients with pneumonia.
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Primary assessment of patients admitted to the emergency ward using arterial blood gas p. 548
Sanjay Mulay, Rajesh Ursekar, Jerry Mathew, Krista Pinto
Background: Arterial blood gas study (ABG) is a point-of-care testing (POCT) diagnostic tool that can furnish metabolic and respiratory aberrations. This study was conducted systematically, to assess the metabolic and respiratory aberrations quickly and the scope for corrective treatment so that metabolic and respiratory abnormalities get corrected. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was done among 150 cases admitted to the Department of Emergency Medicine during a three-month period where the study on ABG was done. Data was collected in the prescribed format and a stepwise interpretation of the ABG was done. The four primary disorders taken into consideration are metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory alkalosis, and respiratory acidosis Results: Out of 150 cases 82 had respiratory alkalosis, 51 had metabolic acidosis, ten had respiratory acidosis, and seven had metabolic alkalosis as a primary disorder. Conclusion: ABG analysis is a POCT diagnostic tool for analyzing various metabolic and respiratory aberrations and can also guide us in the scope for correction of the disorder.
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Sanitation and hand washing behavior of urban slum dwellers in Vellore Corporation of Tamil Nadu, India: during coronavirus disease p. 553
K Nirmalkumar, V Sivasankar
Objectives: This study examines the sanitation and hand-washing behavior of slum dwellers before coronavirus disease 2019 (pre-COVID-19) and during the COVID-19 period. The study also examines health-seeking behavior. Materials and Methods: Purposive sampling method was used to select the study area and household. Out of 49 registered slums in the Vellore municipality corporation, three slums were selected, which represent the highest number of slum households. The names of the urban slum settlement were Salavanpet, Old Town, and Makkan. After selecting the study areas, households were selected on snowball techniques through telephonic conversation with a structured interview schedule. The total samples were 75 households. The study period was from June 2021 to August 2021. Results: The study shows that Vellore has the 18th highest number of positive COVID-19 cases in Tamil Nadu. This study found that regular wage incomes in urban slum dwellers have been severely affected by COVID-19 lockdowns. The majority of households without a toilet in slums have used open defecation during COVID-19. Hand washing behaviors for people living in the urban slums have increased during the COVID-19 than the pre-COVID-19 pandemic. This study found that middle-aged (age 31–40 years) people’s habit of hand washing as a precautionary measure against coronavirus disease increased during COVID-19 compared with pre-COVID-19. Suggestion and Conclusion: The study suggests that improving hand-washing habits could aid in the prevention of the COVID-19 virus and other illnesses and suggests advancing hand washing habits after the pandemic as basic protective measures, which continues to remain essential in urban areas.
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Epidemiological study to assess the status of measles vaccination in under five children and factors associated, in a peri-urban area, Asudgaon village, in Raigad district, Maharashtra, India p. 560
Neha Riswadkar, Prasad J Waingankar, Nisha Ram Relwani, Sunila Sanjeev
Background: Measles continues to be a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in India. Measles is considered one of the leading vaccine-preventable causes of child mortality worldwide. Major reasons for low vaccine coverage exist within the health care system itself, which creates barriers to obtaining immunization. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive, epidemiological study that aimed to examine the coverage of measles vaccination among under-five children of Asudgaon village. All under-five children residing in every 5th household of the village were included(n = 445). After obtaining consent from the mother, data was collected from her using a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. The data was entered and analyzed in SPSS 23. Results: There was a total of 100 children eligible for the study. Overall, 41% of children were fully immunized against measles, 37% were partially immunized, 5% were immunized to date and 17% were not immunized. The most reasons for partial or non-immunization for measles were inadequate knowledge about immunization (19%), unawareness of days of vaccination(n = 14%), the child being ill at the time of vaccination, husband or mother-in-law against vaccination, fear of effects, and others. The Chi-square test indicates a significant association between mothers’ education and measles vaccination. Conclusion: Immunization status needs to be improved through education, increasing awareness, and counseling of parents regarding immunization and associated misconceptions as observed in the study.
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Infectious human diseases: Regions, habitats, threats, and mitigation strategies: The actors—Part I p. 567
Pramod Khandekar, Prasanta K Ghosh
Infectious diseases are a significant burden on the global economy and public health. The major factors attributed to the rise in infectious diseases are thought to be the unstructured rise in the human population with expanding poverty, unplanned urbanization, fast urban migration, unplanned human habitats in thickly populated urban pockets that are the residence of poor people, insufficient healthcare infrastructure, inadequate vaccination, and neglect in effectively containing the zoonotic diseases, among others. Certain global regions such as China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Indonesia among the other Asian countries, sections of South America, and vast parts of Sub-Saharan Africa harbor more infectious human diseases. To contain the infectious disease burden, the health infrastructure especially in poor countries needs to be improved. With the assistance of rich countries monetarily as well as technologically, the situation can be improved. International institutions and large philanthropic organizations are working to improve human health globally. More monetary assistance to these organizations would positively contribute to the cause and would go a long way in diffusing the infectious agents.
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Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury on a molecular level: A brief review p. 577
Vasudha Sakharam Satalkar, K Venkateswara Swamy
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a clinical condition with various etiologies. It is also known as acute renal failure, which is a sudden episode of kidney failure or kidney damage that happens within a few hours or a few days in patients. It causes an increase of waste products in blood and makes it hard for the patient kidneys to keep the right balance of fluid in the body. It can also affect other vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. AKI is common in patients who are in the hospital, in intensive care units, and especially in older adults. It results in increased accumulation of a nitrogenous surplus in blood and a reduction in urine volume. The pathophysiology of various types of AKI is different. The earlier we can identify the causes the more effective treatment can be administered. This review attempts to identify changes on a molecular level during different stages of the disease and further discussed understanding the pathophysiology of AKI to find important molecules involved in various metabolic pathways, various phases and types of AKI, and the effect of drugs on kidneys and cellular level changes. This review article would help to design new drugs and the consequences of their metabolites to avoid Acute Kidney Injury.
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Extensive atherosclerosis associated with mobile thrombus in the left carotid bulb in an elderly p. 585
Shridhar Dwivedi, S Ashfaq, T Riyaz
A case of extensive atherosclerosis in an 88-year-old, chronic heavy smoker, associated with mobile thrombus in the left carotid bulb is presented. This patient also suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hypertension. He was fully worked up and confirmed as a case of the mobile thrombus attached to the plaque in the left carotid bulb by echocardiography and carotid Doppler. Thrombolysis of a large, mobile clot poses a theoretical risk of stroke worsening from incomplete fibrinolysis. He was prescribed anticoagulants and has been doing fine till the last follow-up. The importance of preventing premature atherosclerosis in the next generations is also discussed. We report this case to create awareness about this preventable malady and treatment options.
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Micro- and macro-level economic implications of digital addictions: A case study p. 588
Kannappa V Shetty, Nidhi Tewathia, Urmila Bamney, Vikram Singh Rawat
Introduction: Technology has significantly transformed how we live our lives. The Internet has made life easier by making knowledge more accessible to all and connecting individuals all over the world. However, it has also caused many people to spend far too much time in front of the computer, to the point that it has become the center of their existence. Materials and Methods: A case of a 20-year-old male student of Bachelor of Engineering, who belongs to the middle socio-economic status of a rural area, is digitally addicted, and getting treated in a tertiary hospital in Karnataka, India. Discussion and conclusion: Digital addiction can cause various psychological issues, particularly anxiety, depression, insomnia, and behavioral issues. It further creates an economic crisis in the family of a digital addict as well as for the nation. Therefore, to address the implications of digital addiction, the country must devote resources towards awareness, prevention, and intervention in the area of digital addiction.
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Tuberculosis of the tongue: A rare case p. 591
Devidas B Dahiphale, Abhijeet Nagarpurkar, Harshul Sharma, Shivaji Pole, Prasanna S Mishrikotkar
Introduction: Tuberculosis mostly affects the lungs, but may also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones, joints, and skin. Extrapulmonary involvement in tuberculosis is rare, accounting for just 10 to 15% of cases. The lymph nodes are the second most common site of tuberculosis infection. Oral tuberculosis has long been thought to be an unusual phenomenon. Oral manifestations are thought to occur in just 0.05 to 5% of all tuberculosis cases. Surface ulcers, patches, papillomatous lesions, and indurated soft tissue lesions are the most common oral manifestations. Case Presentation: A 69-year-old man presented to the Department of Ear, Nose, Throat at MGM Hospital in Aurangabad, India, with a painful ulcer and tiny nodules on the tongue’s tip and lateral surface. The ulcer appeared 3–4 weeks ago without any obvious trigger with a prickling feeling and increased soreness over the area., Onintraoral inspection multiple small nodules is measuring about 0.1 cm and multiple circular ulcer measuring about 0.2 x 0.1 cm in diameter at the tip and lateral border of the tongue. A granulomatous center and a whitish, well-defined border with mild elevation characterized the ulcer. Conclusion: Despite the rarity of tuberculosis evidence in the oral cavity, oral tuberculosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic oral lesions. To prevent ineffective oral therapy, accurate diagnosis is crucial for successful care by concentrating on the pathological source.
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A rare case of malakoplakia of the urinary bladder p. 596
Pranav Raja Yadav, Piyush Singhania, Piyush Sahu
Malakoplakia (from Greek Malako “soft” + Plako “plaque”) is a rare inflammatory condition that presents as a papule, plaque, or ulceration that usually affects the genitourinary tract. The most frequently affected organ is the urinary bladder. This condition has features of granulomatous inflammation. The pathogenesis of the disease is not completely understood. It is often misdiagnosed as malignancy. In this case report, we present a case of urinary bladder malakoplakia which presented with obstructive uropathy and acute kidney injury (AKI).
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Extensive soft-tissue calcification in adult dermatomyositis: An incidental finding p. 599
Preethy Paul, Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal, Thara Pratap, K M Mohammed Iqbal
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Anesthetic management of a 42-year-old woman with a known case of sickle cell anemia posted for open cholecystectomy p. 601
Aparna Bagle, Chandrakala
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From the desk of the Editor-in-Chief responding to the author p. 603
Sushil Kumar
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