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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 220-228

Noninvasive screening of osteoporosis using bio-impedance and quantitative ultrasound


1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, MGM’s College of Engineering and Technology, Sector 1, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai-410209, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Imaging Radiology, Nanavati Super Speciality Hospital, Swami Vivekanand Rd, near LIC colony, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, 400056, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Ghanshyam D Jindal
Department of Biomedical Engineering, MGM’s College of Engineering and Technology, Sector 1, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai-410209, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mgmj.mgmj_75_22

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Bone mineral loss is a serious health issue all over the globe resulting in osteoporosis, without showing any pre-indication of its occurrence. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry test is a widely accepted method for its diagnosis which gives areal information about the bone mineral. Other methods like Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) and Peripheral QCT give volumetric information. Application of these methods for mass screening is not recommended due to the use of ionizing radiations. Few non-ionizing methods, namely Bioelectric Impedance Analysis and Quantitative Ultrasound, have evolved in the past few decades. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis, a non-invasive and low-cost tool, has been immensely recognized for its promising use in estimating body composition and body fluids. Similarly, Quantitative Ultrasound is another non-invasive technique for determining bone density at fixed locations, making noninvasive assessment much faster, easier to use, and portable. A multi-parametric approach combining these two modalities has yielded higher efficiency for the detection of bone mineral loss. These developments are briefly reviewed in this paper.


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