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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 422-434

Global efforts on vaccines development against SARS-CoV-2 and Indian endeavor


Ex-Adviser, Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Prasanta Kumar Ghosh
Ex-Adviser, Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India, Block: C2B, Flat: 5A, Janakpuri, New Delhi-110058.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mgmj.mgmj_85_21

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By the end of September 2021, worldwide there were 22 approved SARS-CoV-2 vaccines of which nine were inactivated whole virus-based, six were replication-deficient viral vectored, four protein subunit based, one DNA vaccine, and two mRNA vaccines. Developmental efforts were also to manufacture the whole virus attenuated vaccines, viral vector replicating vaccines, bacterial vector-based vaccines, and viral particle-based vaccines. Host-cell-based vaccines were also being explored. As of October 05, 2021, there were 318 novel vaccine development approaches of which124 had entered into the clinical development stage, the rest 194 were in the preclinical stage. As of October 22, 2021, there were 243.44 million COVID-19 patients worldwide, of which 220.6 million recovered, and about 4.95 million died. The largest deaths per one million population were recorded at 5659 in Peru, and the smallest of 3 were in China. The total vaccine doses deployed worldwide were 6795 million, with 38% of the world population fully vaccinated, and 50% partly. India had taken multiple proactive steps, which included the development of local capabilities in various aspects including manufacturing of vaccines, testing methods and devices development, mass vaccination, mass testing, and production of personal protective equipment and materials. India had lost 324 people per one million, which was much lower than those witnessed in several countries like the Czech Republic, Brazil, Argentina, Spain, Columbia, Romania, the USA, Belgium, Mexico, and Italy. The virus is anticipated to stay in nature and people would have to live with it. Mass vaccination of people all over the world as fast as possible, and deploying booster doses on vulnerable people including those aged 60 years and above, are thought to be most protective for the people against the disease.


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