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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 403-409

Ocular manifestation of pregnancy-induced hypertension

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. N.D. Desai Faculty of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Dr. Dharmsinh Desai University, Nadiad, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Chief of VitreoRetina, Minto Ophthalmic Hospital – Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Snehal Himmatlal Shah
Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. N.D. Desai Faculty of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Dr. Dharmsinh Desai University, Nadiad 387001, Gujarat.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mgmj.mgmj_56_21

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Background and Objectives: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a challenging obstetric condition that can result in grave complications. The retina is a unique site where the vasculature in the human body is visualized directly with the help of an ophthalmoscope. Progression of retinal changes generally correlates with the progression of PIH. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and association of retinal changes with the progression of PIH. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based, prospective, observational study. A total of 100 admitted cases diagnosed with PIH was included in the study. Ocular and systemic history, age, blood pressure, and proteinuria were noted. A dilated indirect ophthalmic examination was done at the bedside of the patient. Results: A total of 100 patients with PIH were examined. The mean age of the patients was 24.8 years; the mean gestational age was 36.5 weeks. Out of the total 100 patients with PIH who were examined, retinal changes were noted in 43 patients. The prevalence of retinopathy changes was more pronounced among patients with severe preeclampsia (76.5%) and eclampsia (88.9%). As the severity of the PIH increased, the odds of women developing retinopathy also increased substantially and this association between the severity of PIH and the development of retinopathy changes was found to be statistically significant. A significant correlation was also seen between albuminuria and the severity of retinopathy. Conclusion: Cases of severe preeclampsia and eclampsia showed higher grades of retinal changes. Thus fundus examination plays an important role in assessing the severity of PIH.

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