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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 297-302

Management of olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients: a review


Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Medical Sciences and SUM Hospital, Siksha “O” Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), K8 Lane 1, Kalinganagar, Bhubaneswar 751003, Odisha, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Santosh Kumar Swain
Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Medical Sciences and SUM Hospital, Siksha “O” Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), K8 Lane 1, Kalinganagar, Bhubaneswar 751003, Odisha.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mgmj.mgmj_37_21

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The symptomatology of COVID-19 varies from mild symptoms such as fever and dry cough to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There is an increasing number of patients with anosmia and hyposmia as the COVID-19 pandemic continues. Currently, loss of smell is a well-recognized symptom of the COVID-19 infection, and some of the patients develop long-lasting olfactory dysfunction. Some COVID-19 patients may present with olfactory dysfunction as the only symptom or with other symptoms. The exact pathogenesis of olfactory dysfunctions is still not clear. The clinical evolution of the olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients is still unclear as the recovery reports vary significantly. There is no recommended standard treatment protocol to reduce anosmia or hyposmia due to COVID-19 infection. A short course of oral corticosteroids and olfactory training (OT) is a safe and effective option for managing post-COVID olfactory dysfunction. The efficacy of intranasal corticosteroid spray is still in doubt for treating olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Currently, OT is a useful treatment option for anosmia or hyposmia in COVID-19 patients. However, there is a crucial need for further studies to get better and more effective treatment options for a complete cure of the post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction. This review article discusses the details of the management of olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. The literature sources included PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Medline databases and searched with word management of olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, smell disturbances, COVID-19 infections, olfactory dysfunction, and medical treatment of olfactory dysfunction.


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