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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 222-226

A comparative evaluation of Typhidot and Widal tests for the detection of agglutinins against typhoid and paratyphoid bacilli in patients’ sera

Department of Microbiology, N.C. Medical College and Hospital, Israna, Panipat 132107, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Gurjeet Singh
Department of Microbiology, N.C. Medical College and Hospital, Israna, Panipat 132107, Haryana.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mgmj.mgmj_57_21

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Background: The term enteric fever includes typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi and paratyphoid fever caused by Salmonella paratyphi A, B, and C. Typhoid fever has been virtually eliminated in the developed countries during the past several decades, mainly as a result of improvement in water supply and sanitation, but it continues to be endemic in the resource-limited nations of the world. The control of paratyphoid fever has not been so successful. Bacteriological diagnosis of enteric fever consists of isolation of the bacilli from the patients and the demonstration of antibodies in their sera. Widal testing is cost-effective and gives reports quickly. The Typhidot test is based on the method of immunochromatography test. It is easy to perform, and the results can be preserved for a long time. This study aims to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the Widal test and Typhidot test for the diagnosis of enteric fever. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out at the Department of Microbiology, N.C. Medical College and Hospital, Panipat, Haryana, India, over 6 months from September 2020 to February 2021. In our study, a total of 150 clinically suspected patients were included. First of all, the area for blood collection was cleaned with spirit-soaked cotton and 10 mL of blood was collected with a sterile disposable needle and syringe from a median cubital vein (antecubital vein) of each patient after obtaining informed consent from the patient (from parents in case of age below 18 years). Seven milliliters of blood was immediately transferred to a blood culture bottle by cleaning the cap of the bottle for isolation and identification of causative organisms and 3 mL was transferred to a sterile plain vial for serum separation. Then the qualitative Widal slide agglutination test and Typhidot test were performed on each sample. Results: In the present study, out of the 150 clinically suspected enteric fever cases, maximum positivity 53 (35.33%) was given by the Typhidot test, followed by 36 (24%) given by the qualitative Widal slide agglutination test and 44 (29.33%) given by blood culture for S. typhi and S. paratyphi. Conclusion: Our study highlights the use of Typhidot for early diagnosis of enteric fever and also cross-checks with Widal test and blood culture for the diagnosis of enteric fever. Typhidot tests are easy to perform and less-trained personnel can also perform the test; they have been designed to detect IgM and IgG antibodies to lipopolysaccharide or outer membrane protein antigens of S. typhi and S. paratyphi. It can be useful in the early diagnosis of infection in the initial weeks of primary infection when a single serum sample is available, with a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 80%, respectively, considering blood culture as a gold standard.

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