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REVIEW ARTICLE
Suniel G Deshpande, Rajesh K Srivastava

Over-the-counter Drug Market in India: A Study to understand the Current Regulatory Perspective and Industry Dynamics

[Year:2018] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:5 ] [Number:1] [Pages:50] [Pages No:33-36][No of Hits : 830]


ABSTRACT

Self-medication is on the rise in India. This is due to various reasons that are connected to the environment, demographic factors, changing consumer lifestyles, government policies, and strategies of the pharmaceutical industry. There has been a significant increase in the number of over-the-counter (OTC) products introduced in the health care market in India. On the regulatory front, the government is trying to consider legal recognition to the OTC category of drugs which currently do not have any legal recognition. Over-the-counter drugs in India can be advertised in media unlike some categories of the prescriptiononly drugs which are totally prohibited. The OTC drugs require a sales license except some drugs in Schedule K, which are categorized as household remedies. However, Ayurvedic drugs in India do not require a sales license and therefore, can be sold freely. It is expected that the regulatory policies would undergo changes initiated by the government in the near future.

Keywords: Drug utilization, Over-the-counter, Pharmaceutical industry, Prescriptions, Regulatory policy.

How to cite this article: Deshpande SG, Srivastava RK. Overthe- counter Drug Market in India: A Study to understand the Current Regulatory Perspective and Industry Dynamics. MGM J Med Sci 2018;5(1):33-36.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Kishor Khotkar, Sameer Chaudhari, Pradeep R Jadhav, Yeshwant A Deshmukh

Assessment of Medication Adherence in Type II Diabetic Patients: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:65-69][No of Hits : 1513]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diabetes is a chronic disorder and requires longterm therapy. Lack of adherence to antidiabetic medication causes suboptimal glycemic control and can lead to treatment failures, development of complications, and increased mortality.

Aim: To study the medication adherence among type II diabetic patients at a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted for a period of 1 year in the Diabetology Clinic in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 100 type II diabetic patients, who were on antidiabetic drug therapy for at least 6 months, were enrolled. Blood glucose was measured and details of drug therapy were noted. Medication adherence was assessed using Morisky Medication Adherence Scale and adherence scores were calculated.

Results: Only 1% had high medication adherence, while 34% had moderate and 65% had low medication adherence. Medication adherence issues identified in type II diabetics were that they forgot to take/bring their medication when traveling, stoppage of medication once glycemic control is achieved, and difficulty in adhering to medication plan. Only 19% were having optimally controlled glycemic levels, whereas 81% were having uncontrolled glycemic levels. Medication adherence scores were lower (reflecting lower adherence) in type II patients with uncontrolled glycemic levels than those having optimally controlled glycemic levels, but this difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Overall, the medication adherence was low in type II diabetic patients. The study shows that to improve medication adherence, better counseling and health education of patients are required.

Keywords: Medication adherence, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, Type II diabetes.

How to cite this article: Khotkar K, Chaudhari S, Jadhav PR, Deshmukh YA. Assessment of Medication Adherence in Type II Diabetic Patients: A Cross-sectional Study. MGM J Med Sci 2017;4(2):65-69.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Jeetendra Gavhane, Karan Markanda, Surabhi Dogra, Neha Jafri

Severe Metabolic Alkalosis in an Infant: Bartter Syndrome

[Year:2017] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:53] [Pages No:43-45][No of Hits : 796]


ABSTRACT

Metabolic alkalosis is an uncommon acid/base disorder in children in which serum bicarbonate concentration is increased. Two most important causes of metabolic alkalosis are emesis and diuretic use. However, in the absence of these two etiologies, a thorough investigative workup is of paramount importance to reach a definitive diagnosis. A case having severe metabolic alkalosis diagnosed as a case of Bartter syndrome is being reported.

Keywords: Bartter syndrome, Hypokalemia, Metabolic alkalosis.

How to cite this article: Gavhane J, Markanda K, Dogra S, Jafri N. Severe Metabolic Alkalosis in an Infant: Bartter Syndrome. MGM J Med Sci 2017;4(1):43-45.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Rajkishor Nishad, Krishnamurthy Nakuluri, Manga Motrapu, Anil K Pasupulati

Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition of Glomerular Podocytes: Implications in Proteinuria

[Year:2017] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:53] [Pages No:26-34][No of Hits : 711]


ABSTRACT

The kidneys play an essential role in filtration of blood plasma, regulation of water, electrolyte, and acid/base balance of the body, and thus maintain overall homeostasis. The glomerular filtration barrier serves as a size, shape, and charge barrier to ensue glomerular permselectivity, so that kidneys excrete almost protein-free urine. Podocytes are glomerular visceral epithelial cells and significantly contribute to the glomerular permeability owing to their unique structure and specialized function. Nevertheless, podocytes are susceptible to various insults, including altered metabolites, aberrant signaling molecules, and mutations to critical proteins that otherwise ensue normal function. Podocyte injury is a predominant indicator of several glomerular diseases that are manifested by proteinuria. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered as one of the responses of podocytes to the noxious stimuli, which consequently results in podocyte depletion and proteinuria. This review discusses the importance of podocytes in normal renal filtration and details the molecular and cellular events that lead to EMT of podocytes vis-é-vis impaired glomerular filtration.

Keywords: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, Glomerulus, Kidney, Nephron, Podocytes, Proteinuria.

How to cite this article: Nishad R, Nakuluri K, Motrapu M, Pasupulati AK. Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition of Glomerular Podocytes: Implications in Proteinuria. MGM J Med Sci 2017;4(1):26-34.

Source of support: The work is funded by a grant from SERB, India (EMR/2015/002076) and DST-INSPIRE Faculty Scheme to AKP.

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Shamma Shetye, Pratiksha Chheda, Ashish Lad, Sunmeet Matkar, Priyanka Yadav

Utility of GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Rifampin Assay for Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Samples

[Year:2017] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:53] [Pages No:6-9][No of Hits : 689]


ABSTRACT

A total of 3,806 samples from suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) were subjected to GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/rifampin (RIF) assay. Samples consisted of body fluids, pleural fluids, pus and aspirates, lymph node (LN) tissues, and others. Mycobacterium tuberculosis positivity was detected in 18.10% and RIF positivity in 2.73% samples. The MTB/RIF positivity was found highest in pus and aspirates (40.38%). In this study, assay failure rate for GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay was very low (1.99%). It is concluded from this study that GeneXpert MTB/RIF is an efficient, reliable, simple, and fast technique for rapid diagnosis of EPTB in our country where incidence of tuberculosis remains high.

Keywords: Assay failure rate, Extrapulmonary tuberculosis, GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay, Positivity rate.

How to cite this article: Shetye S, Chheda P, Lad A, Matkar S, Yadav P. Utility of GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/ Rifampin Assay for Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Samples. MGM J Med Sci 2017;4(1):6-9.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Poonam Chaturvedi, Vandana Tiwari, Ajai K Singh, Dinkar Kulshrestha, Pradeep K Maurya, Anup K Thacker

Effects of Early Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation-Exercises on Functional Outcome and Quality of Life in Patients with Stroke

[Year:2017] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:3] [Pages:47] [Pages No:130-133][No of Hits : 672]


ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) exercises on functional outcome and quality of life (QoL) in patients with acute stroke.

Materials and methods: Ninety patients were recruited in this study and divided into two groups: Patients admitted within 48 hours after stroke (group I, n = 41) and patients referred from elsewhere after 2 to 3 weeks (group II, n = 49). Both groups were given PNF exercises for 4 weeks. Functional outcome was assessed by Barthel Index (BI), and QoL was assessed by Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQOL) scale before and after the intervention. Patients were followed up in the outpatient department of the Department of Neurology at 1, 3, and 6 months and BI and SSQOL scores were again assessed.

Results: Group I showed significant and better recovery in functional activities (p < 0.05) and better QoL as compared with group II (p < 0.05). We also compared functional outcome and QoL in ischemic vs hemorrhagic stroke (p = 0.284) and left vs right stroke (p = 0.973) and found there was no significant difference.

Conclusion: Improvement in activities of daily living may result in better QoL. The PNF exercises are very effective in improving muscle tone, functional outcome, and QoL. The PNF exercises should be given from the first day after stroke.

Keywords: Barthel index, Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, Quality of life, Stroke.

How to cite this article: Chaturvedi P, Tiwari V, Singh AK, Kulshrestha D, Maurya PK, Thacker AK. Effects of Early Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Exercises on Functional Outcome and Quality of Life in Patients with Stroke. MGM J Med Sci 2017;4(3):130-133.

Source of support: Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi, India

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Ghanshyam D Jindal, Aparna S Lakhe, Jyoti V Jethe, Sadhana A Mandlik, Rajesh K Jain, Vinnet Sinha, Alaka Deshpande

Photoplethysmography and Its Clinical Application

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:89-96][No of Hits : 576]


ABSTRACT

Photoplethysmography (PPG), introduced in 1937, is routinely used for monitoring heart rate, blood perfusion and oxygen saturation of the blood in the intensive care units for the past several decades. It is also being used for the assessment of peripheral blood flow and venous filling time in noninvasive vascular laboratories. It works on the principle of light/infrared absorption in the body segment and detection and processing of transmitted light/infrared radiation.
In the past few decades, there has been more emphasis on the pulse morphology. Analysis of higher harmonic components and derivation of cardiovascular indices have emerged as powerful tools for the assessment of arterial aging, endothelial function, and vascular compliance. The ease of operating and extreme low cost of PPG system has made it ideal for objective assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS). This technique is presently being explored for the personal monitoring of blood glucose noninvasively.

Keywords: Digital blood flow, Endothelial function, Heart rate variability, Photoplethysmography, Stiffness index, Venous filling time.

How to cite this article: Jindal GD, Lakhe AS, Jethe JV, Mandlik SA, Jain RK, Sinha V, Deshpande A. Photoplethysmography and Its Clinical Application. MGM J Med Sci 2017;4(2):89-96.

Source of support: Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Atomic Energy Department, Government of India, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai - 400085, India.

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Nandkishor Raut, Piyush Singhania, Nitin Joshi, Sanish Shringarpure, Saket Sathe, Niraj Tiwari

Prospective Study of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in the Management of Renal Calculi

[Year:2017] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:1] [Pages:53] [Pages No:1-5][No of Hits : 564]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Kidney stones are a common problem affecting all population groups across the globe. Percutaneous extraction of renal stone - properly termed percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) which was invented over three decades ago - has become a standard, well-established procedure for the management of renal stones. This study will evaluate the role of PCNL in the management of renal calculi.

Materials and methods: A total of 107 cases of renal calculi who underwent PCNL from May 1, 2014 to April 30, 2016 were studied. Intraoperative findings and immediate postoperative complications were noted. They were followed up for 1 month after the surgical procedure.

Results: Mean age of cases was 43.64 years. Multiple calculi were seen in 43.9%, while a staghorn calculus was seen in 16.8%. Stone clearance was done through a single tract in 78.5%. Additional tracts were made in 21.5%. Tubeless PCNL was done in 45%; 12.1% of the cases had urinary tract infection. Pulmonary complications were noted in 4.67% in the form of hydrothorax. Urinary leak was noted in 4.6%; 70% of the cases were left stone free, with an overall success rate of 85.98%.

Conclusion: This study reveals that PCNL is a safe procedure with less complications and higher stone-free rates without compromising patient safety in a short period.

Keywords: Minimally invasive, Nephroscopy, Percutaneous nephrolithotomy, Renal calculi.

How to cite this article: Raut N, Singhania P, Joshi N, Shringarpure S, Sathe S, Tiwari N. Prospective Study of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in the Management of Renal Calculi. MGM J Med Sci 2017;4(1):1-5.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Anshuman Pandey, Shakeel Masood, Smita Chauhan, Alankar K Gupta, Nitin Goel, Khalid Noman

Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair: Our Experience in 75 Patients

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:70-74][No of Hits : 553]


ABSTRACT

Introduction and aim: Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair has become a method of choice for treatment of ventral hernias. It has benefits of shorter hospital stay, less pain, and better cosmetic results, although it continues to remain a challenging procedure, more so in reoperative abdomen and in patients with serious comorbidities. The aim of this study is to evaluate our experience of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair carried out by a single surgical team.

Materials and methods: Ventral hernia, both primary and incisional hernia, was repaired by laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) repair in 75 patients at a single center within 3 years between January 2013 and December 2016. This was done at a tertiary care center by a single operating team standardizing the procedure and evaluating the learning curve.

Results: Seventy-five patients underwent laparoscopic IPOM repair of which 45 were females and 30 males. The average age was 52 years (35-72) and size of defect ranged from 4 to 12 cm. Dual mesh with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene was used in all patients. Sixty-two cases were incisional hernias, 10 paraumbilical hernias, and 3 umbilical hernias. Of these, 14 were recurrent incisional hernias after open mesh hernioplasty out of which two cases recurred after laparoscopic IPOM. Mean operative time was 60 to 130 minutes. There were no conversions to open technique. The average hospital stay was 2 to 3 days. One patient had postoperative Richter’s hernia which was managed by relaparoscopic reduction and transfascial closure of the defect. Three patients had postoperative ileus, three developed minor wound infection, and one patient had seroma. The average follow-up period was around 12 months.

Conclusion: Laparoscopic IPOM ventral hernia repair is a safe procedure in most cases with benefits of rapid recovery and better patient outcomes, more so in large recurrent incisional hernias and in patients with serious comorbidities.

Keywords: Incisional hernia, Intraperitoneal onlay mesh, Ventral hernia.

How to cite this article: Pandey A, Masood S, Chauhan S, Gupta AK, Goel N, Noman K. Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair: Our Experience in 75 Patients. MGM J Med Sci 2017;4(2):70-74.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Saket Sathe, Piyush Singhania, Nitin Joshi, Sanish Shringarpure, Nandkishor Raut, Niraj Tiwari

A Case of Fournier's Gangrene of Penis leading to Complete Loss of Penile Urethra

[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:97-99][No of Hits : 507]


ABSTRACT

Fournier’s gangrene (FG) of penis is a rare but fulminant condition often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Fournier’s gangrene typically spares testis, urethra, and deep penile components in view of their deeper blood supply, which is independent of compromised fascial and subcutaneous circulation. An unusual case of a 55-year-old nondiabetic male who presented to the emergency department of MGM Medical College, Navi Mumbai, India, with acute urinary retention due to impacted urethral calculus is reported. Patient developed FG of penis with isolated involvement of corpus spongiosum, leading to loss of penile urethra. Emergency penile exploration and debridement was done followed by elective perineal urethrostomy at a later date.

Keywords: Corpus spongiosum, Fournier’s gangrene of penis, Penile urethra.

How to cite this article: Sathe S, Singhania P, Joshi N, Shringarpure S, Raut N, Tiwari N. A Case of Fournier’s Gangrene of Penis leading to Complete Loss of Penile Urethra. MGM J Med Sci 2017;4(2):97-99.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Mahantayya V Math, Yashoda R Kattimani, Rita M Khadkikar, Sachin M Patel, V Shanti, Ravindra S Inamdar

Red Blood Cell Count: Brief History and New Method

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:49] [Pages No:116-119][No of Hits : 2355]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Red blood cells (RBCs) were observed under microscope by Jan Swammerdam in 1658. The RBC count was done in 1852 by Professor Karl Vierordt from Germany for the first time almost after 192 years. After this, the other scientists have also done RBC count with different methods. Hayem used a new diluting fluid (Hayem‖s diluting fluid) for RBC count which is used even today. The present methods have many errors mainly due to sampling, diluting, and pipetting.

Materials and methods: In this study, the modified method of RBC counting has been shown. The RBC counting was done using hemoglobinometer pipette and modified diluting fluid - Hayem‖s fluid mixed with Leishman‖s stain (HFLS) RBC diluting fluid - in the ratio of 97.5 mL of Hayem‖s RBC diluting fluid and 2.5 mL of Leishman‖s stain to make 100 mL. Amber colored glass bottle top dispenser was used to dispense 2 and 4 mL of diluting fluid into the glass test tubes .With aseptic precautions, 10 and 20 μL of blood samples were collected by using the hemoglobinometer pipette (marked with black marker pen to get accurate measurement for 10 μL) from finger prick with sterile needle. The blood samples were added to the glass test tubes containing HFLS RBC diluting fluid and mixing was done with a glass stirrer. With the help of glass capillary tube, Neubauer chambers were charged and observed under microscope.

Results: Red blood cells were seen better. The RBCs retained their shape and size even after 96 hours when the blood samples mixed with HFLS RBC diluting fluid were kept at room temperature.

Conclusion: Red blood cells were seen better with this method and diluting and charging errors were minimized.

Keywords: Glass bottle top dispenser, Hayem‖s red blood cell diluting fluid, Hemoglobinometer pipette, Leishman‖s stain, Red blood cell count.

How to cite this article: Math MV, Kattimani YR, Khadkikar RM, Patel SM, Shanti V, Inamdar RS. Red Blood Cell Count: Brief History and New Method. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(3):116-119.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Sveeta V Mhatre, Amita A Bhagit, Raman P Yadav

Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitor from Food Plant: Potential Molecule for Development of Safe Anti-obesity Drug

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:56] [Pages No:34-41][No of Hits : 1590]


ABSTRACT

Obesity is a global health concern, widely recognized as the largest and fastest growing public health problem in the developed and developing countries associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is a multifactorial disease resulting in significant impairment of health. The strategies used for the treatment of obesity generally comprise of prescription of drugs and surgery. Number of basic mechanisms has been considered for obesity management but these entail serious complexities. In recent year’s pancreatic lipase, a principal lipolytic enzyme secreted by the pancreas has gained importance as -obesity target. As the PL acts in the duodenum it has least involvement with the blood or brain, avoiding a lot of drug related side effects. Although PL has been considered as good target for obesity management, the drug discovery and development in this section is not abundantly explored. Numerous natural molecules have been established for pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity but only orlistat (tetrahydrolipstatin), a saturated derivative of lipstatin designed to inhibit the action of gastrointestinal lipase approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for longterm usage. However, it has severe side effects. Therefore, the possible treatment of obesity using natural products is an extensive field to be explored. Several plant derived molecules including medicinal plants have been reported for their pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity. In particular pancreatic lipase inhibitor from food plants can be considered as a good source for the discovery of a safe anti-obesity agent due to possible active principle as edible component. Present review mainly focuses on the pancreatic lipase inhibitor from food plants and its potential in the development of safe anti-obesity drug.

Keywords: Obesity, Pancreatic lipase inhibitor (PL inhibitor), Plant derived.

How to cite this article: Mhatre SV, Bhagit AA, Yadav RP. Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitor from Food Plant: Potential Molecule for Development of Safe Anti-obesity Drug. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(1):34-41.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Prema Saldanha

Morphological Assessment of Lymph Nodes Draining Carcinoma

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:4] [Pages:55] [Pages No:190-197][No of Hits : 1125]


ABSTRACT

Lymph nodes draining tumors are considered anatomic barriers to tumor spread. The involvement of lymph nodes by metastatic spread of tumors signifies the start of a new phase in the progress of a cancer. It indicates that through a succession of molecular changes, the cancer cells have acquired phenotypes that enable them to invade, colonize, and disseminate. Lymph node status is one of the most important indicators of clinical outcome. Lymph nodes are also the site where specific immune interactions between tumor antigens and lymphoid cells take place. Enlargement of nodes may be caused by spread of cancer cells or due to reactive hyperplasia of lymph nodes in response to tumor-associated antigens (TAA). The various lymphoid cell populations react in various ways, giving rise to different morphologic patterns. Only a few studies have investigated possible correlations between the patterns of lymph node reactivity and prognosis in malignant tumors.
Histological analysis of the patterns in the regional lymph nodes draining the tumor could elucidate the immunological host–tumor relationship and provide additional information on patient survival. Increasing size of the tumor, higher grade, and stage are likely to show decreased number of reactive lymph nodes. More extensive studies on lymph node immune response patterns will be helpful in providing information on patient prognosis.

Keywords: Carcinoma, Lymph nodes, Reactive.

How to cite this article: Saldanha P. Morphological Assessment of Lymph Nodes Draining Carcinoma. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(4):190-197.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Alaka K Deshpande, Shamshersingh G Chauhan, Ankita Sood

Dengue : A Review

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:56] [Pages No:26-33][No of Hits : 1050]


ABSTRACT

Dengue is the most common arboviral disease in the world with over 50 million people being affected all over. Caused by the virus from genus Flaviviridae, it can result from nonspecific viral illness. Early diagnosis, rapid identification of the complications, and fluid restoration are the cornerstone of management of this disease.

Keywords: Arboviral, Dengue, Shock.

How to cite this article: Deshpande AK, Chauhan SG, Sood A. Dengue: A Review. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(1):26-33.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Darpan Kaur, Rahul Mishra, Gurvinder Kalra, Dattatray Bhusare

Accidental Ingestion of Risperidone in a Toddler with Autism

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:4] [Pages:55] [Pages No:210-211][No of Hits : 999]


ABSTRACT

Risperidone (RIS) is an atypical antipsychotic which can be clinically used to treat certain specific symptoms of autism in children and adolescents as per international guidelines and scientific literature. However, globally sparse literature is available regarding accidental ingestion and toxicity of RIS despite the increasing frequency of its usage in children and adolescents. A rare case of accidental RIS ingestion in a toddler with autism has been reported. It has been reviewed and discussed with the support of relevant literature regarding the clinical aspects and management.

Keywords: Accidental, Autism, Ingestion, Risperidone, Toddler.

How to cite this article: Kaur D, Mishra R, Kalra G, Bhusare D. Accidental Ingestion of Risperidone in a Toddler with Autism. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(4):210-211.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Kuldeep Singh, Reeta Dhar, Shilpi Sahu, Hemangi R Jerajani

Clinicopathological Spectrum of Vesiculobullous Skin Lesions with Special Reference to Direct Immunofluorescence Microscopy

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:4] [Pages:55] [Pages No:181-189][No of Hits : 978]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Accurate diagnosis of vesiculobullous lesions of skin requires evaluation of clinical, histopathological, and immunofluorescence findings.

Materials and methods: A clinicopathological study of vesiculobullous lesions of skin was carried out over a period of 2 years in a tertiary hospital, Navi Mumbai, India. Forty-one cases of vesiculobullous disease were reported. Patients were evaluated based on their clinical findings, histopathological, and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) features to arrive at a definitive diagnosis in case of cutaneous vesiculobullous diseases. Biopsies comprised lesional as well as perilesional skin.

Results: Majority of the patients (34.15%) were in the age group of 40 to 49 years. Male to female ratio was 1:1.4. All the cases presented with blister. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) was the most common vesiculobullous disease accounting for 39.02% followed by bullous pemphigoid (BP) in 29.27%. Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) and Hailey-Hailey disease (HDD) constituted 7.32% each. 4.88% cases were of spongiotic dermatitis, while one case each of Pemphigus erythematous (PE), subcorneal pustular dermatoses (SCPD), epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), lichen planus pemphigoid (LPP), and bullous lichen planus (BLP) accounting for 2.44%. Histopathological features were conclusive in 85.37% cases. Direct immunofluorescence was contributory in 14.63% cases, where histopathology was inconclusive.

Conclusion: Histopathology was important for differentiating PV from PF. A good clinicopathological correlation was seen. Thus, correlation of clinical, histopathological, and DIF required for definitive diagnosis of vesiculobullous lesions of the skin.

Keywords: Clinical pathology, Direct immunofluorescence microscopy, Epidermolysis bullosa, Vesiculobullous lesions.

How to cite this article: Singh K, Dhar R, Sahu S, Jerajani HR. Clinicopathological Spectrum of Vesiculobullous Skin Lesions with Special Reference to Direct Immunofluorescence Microscopy. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(4):181-189.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Sunila Sanjeev, Prasad Waingankar, Seema Anjenaya, BS Lohare

A Study of Reasons for Nonimmunization among Children attending the Services of a Rural Hospital in Raigad District, Maharashtra

[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:54] [Pages No:57-61][No of Hits : 902]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to decrease childhood morbidity and mortality. According to the 3rd National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 43.5% children aged 12 to 23 months were fully vaccinated. The 3rd District Level Household & Facility Survey (DLHS-3) showed 69% full-immunization coverage in Maharashtra with major regional variations. Rural Hospital, Panvel (Raigad), is in a peri-urban area providing health services to a mix of urban, rural, and migrant population. The study was conducted in this hospital with the aim to understand why people seeking health services for secondary prevention refrain from complying with routine immunization services.

Objectives: To assess the reasons for partial and nonimmunization of the children and the knowledge regarding routine immunization.

Materials and methods: All children who completed 1 year but below 5 years of age, attending the Rural Hospital, Panvel, during a period of 1 month from October 16 to November 15, 2014, were screened and those who were not fully immunized for the age were included in the study. Sociodemographic background, immunization status, reasons for partial and nonimmunization, and knowledge about routine immunization data were collected by personal interview using a prestructured, pretested questionnaire after obtaining informed consent.

Results: Out of 303 children, 57 (18.8%) were found to be either partially immunized (47; 15.5%) or nonimmunized (10; 3.3%). The lack of knowledge (36%), lack of priority for immunization (33%), and poor communication by the health worker (21%) were the major reasons. 42% of the mothers were aware about the severity of the vaccine preventable diseases. However, 80% did not have the correct knowledge regarding the immunization schedule.

Conclusion: The opportunities to vaccinate are still being missed and consolidated efforts to improve the active involvement of mother in the immunization activity are required.

Keywords: Child immunization, Maharashtra, Nonimmunization, Rural hospital.

How to cite this article: Sanjeev S, Waingankar P, Anjenaya S, Lohare BS. A Study of Reasons for Nonimmunization among Children attending the Services of a Rural Hospital in Raigad District, Maharashtra. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(2):57-61.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
GD Jindal, Manasi S Sawant, Jyoti A Pande, Aditi Rohini, Priyanka Jadhwar, Bhaimangesh B Naik, Alaka K Deshpande

Heart Rate Variability: Objective Assessment of Autonomic Nervous System

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:4] [Pages:55] [Pages No:198-205][No of Hits : 900]


ABSTRACT

Heart rate variability (HRV) came into existence by observations of Hon and Lee in 1965 and since then has been a subject of prime importance in medical research. It is derived from changes in RR intervals in a continuous recording of electrocardiogram. Different types of measurements are carried out on these RR intervals in time and frequency domain. Among others, variance, total power, low-frequency (LF) power, high-frequency (HF) power, and LF/HF ratio are frequently used HRV parameters for objective assessment of autonomic function and assessment of several clinical conditions. Poincare plot gives a quick visual impression of HRV. This article describes measurement of all these parameters and their clinical applications.

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, Diabetic neuropathy, Heart rate variability, Poincare plot, Sympathovagal balance, Total power.

How to cite this article: Jindal GD, Sawant MS, Pande JA, Rohini A, Jadhwar P, Naik BB, Deshpande AK. Heart Rate Variability: Objective Assessment of Autonomic Nervous System. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(4):198-205.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Navami Dayal, Mansee Thakur, Poonam Patil, Niharika Swain, Dattatraya Shankar Joshi

Effects of Subacute Exposure to Gold Nanoparticles on Germ Cells of Zebrafish (Danio rerio): An in vivo Study

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:56] [Pages No:1-6][No of Hits : 893]


ABSTRACT

Although in vivo studies have been modeled using higher mammal systems, the lower vertebrate zebrafish (Danio rerio) has gained tremendous attention as a model system. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) attract the interest of scientists due to their promising potential applications in medicine and targeted drug delivery. The purpose to use GNPs in vivo is that gold in bulk form is nontoxic and apply the positive potentials of nanoparticles. Bulk gold is century-long accepted as a safeto- use metal. Gold in its nanoform has distinct chemical and physical properties and the large amount of surface atoms make GNPs reactive. Moreover, GNPs can potentially access many cellular or subcellular structures, which are unreachable by the larger compound and may induce toxic effects. This paper addresses effects of spherical GNPs of average size 15 nm on reproductive organs after subacute exposure in adult male and female zebrafish. Gold nanoparticles were chemically synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscope.
The primary objective of this study was to determine if exposure to GNPs altered cellular morphology of gonads. The adult fish of both sexes were administered orally with these GNPs at a dose of 20 µg/gm. At the end of the study, quantification of gold content was estimated using two different tools: inductive coupled plasmon-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductive coupled plasmon-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). No gold metal accumulation was detected in treated group of male and female zebrafish at subacute exposures on estimation through ICP-AES. On analysis using ICP-MS, 0.44 ± 0.18 µg/gm organ weight was detected in ovaries and 4.6 ± 3.20 µg/gm organ weight was detected in testes of treated groups. However, the pattern of accumulation was found to be nonsignificant when compared with the control group at a p-value >0.05. Histopathological analysis of reproductive organs showed no significant changes in cellular morphology of testes and ovaries.

Keywords: Germ cells, Gold nanoparticles, Reproductive toxicity, Zebrafish.

How to cite this article: Dayal N, Thakur M, Patil P, Swain N, Joshi DS. Effects of Subacute Exposure to Gold Nanoparticles on Germ Cells of Zebrafish (Danio rerio): An in vivo Study. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(1):1-6.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Sushil Kumar, Iqbal Tintoiya, Nimisha Srivastava, Pratima Thamke

High CA 125 in a Case of Abdominal Tuberculosis mimicking Ovarian Malignancy

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:56] [Pages No:51-52][No of Hits : 821]


ABSTRACT

A 45-year-old patient was admitted with history of abdominal pain and distension. Clinically diagnosis was pointing toward a case of right-sided ovarian mass with ascites. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen was suggestive of mucinous cystadenoma of right ovary with moderate ascites. Ascitic fluid tap was exudative in nature and negative for malignant cells. Blood investigations were within normal limits except for raised CA 125 (more than 1000 mIU/L) and raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (112 mm/h). Our provisional diagnosis was serous cystadenocarcinoma right ovary or pelvic tuberculosis (TB) involving right adnexa and pelvic peritoneum. Ascitic fluid findings were more in favor of pelvic TB, therefore the patient was started on antitubercular treatment (ATT) on trial basis. The patient responded considerably well to ATT.

Keywords: Abdominal tuberculosis, Ascites, CA 125.

How to cite this article: Kumar S, Tintoiya I, Srivastava N, Thamke P. High CA 125 in a Case of Abdominal Tuberculosis mimicking Ovarian Malignancy. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(1):51-52.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Shruti P Nair, Bela Agarwal, Monal Shah, Shradha Sawant, Nikita Sinha, Vijayendra Rajguru, Rajani Mullerpatan

Level of Physical Exercise Capacity, Respiratory Muscle Strength and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Healthy Adolescents

[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:54] [Pages No:66-71][No of Hits : 811]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: The maturation of respiratory system in children leads to changes in value of respiratory parameters like peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Accurate analysis and clinical decisionmaking in disease state require reference values for different ages. The current study was undertaken to study pulmonary function and exercise capacity in children and adolescents.

Materials and methods: After obtaining Institutional Ethical approval and parental informed consent, 262 subjects aged 9 to 15 years were recruited for the study. They were divided into two age groups, i.e., preadolescent (9-12 years) and early adolescent (13-15 years). Demographic details including age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were noted. Physical activity rating (PAR) scale was used to denote physical activity levels. Peak expiratory flow rate was measured using standard Mini-bell peak flow meter (PFM). The parameters MIP and MEP was measured using micro respiratory pressure meter, and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was performed as per American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines.

Results: A significant difference was noted between the two groups in PEFR, MIP, MEP, and 6MWD (p = 0.00). Age showed a strong positive correlation with PEFR (r = 0.613, p = 0.000), MIP (r = 0.676, p = 0.000), and MEP (r = 0.658, p = 0.00) whereas showed a strong negative correlation with 6MWD (r = -0.605, p = 0.00). Height showed a strong positive correlation with MEP (r = 0.720, p = 0.000) whereas a strong negative correlation with 6MWD (r = -0.42, p = 0.00). Weight showed a weak negative correlation with 6MWD (r = -0.328, p = 0.00). Gender difference was noticeable in 6MWD and PEFR (p = 0.00) but not in MIP (p = 0.45) and MEP (p = 0.44). Almost 22.10% of early adolescents were overweight compared to only 7.7% seen in preadolescent group.

Conclusion: PEFR and respiratory muscle strength was higher in early adolescents as compared to pre-adolescents. However, exercise capacity reflected by 6 MWD was found to be lower in early adolescents in comparison to pre-adolescents. These findings could be used while interpreting the outcome measures utilized while treating patients and for goal setting in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation in clinical practice.

Keywords: Maximum expiratory pressure, Maximum inspiratory pressure, Peak expiratory flow rate, 6-minute walk test.

How to cite this article: Nair SP, Agarwal B, Shah M, Sawant S, Sinha N, Rajguru V, Mullerpatan R. Level of Physical Exercise Capacity, Respiratory Muscle Strength and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Healthy Adolescents. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(2):66-71.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Shrikant Deshpande, Neeraj A Israni, Swetha Narayanam, Neha Dhiware

Multiple Intraorbital Glass Foreign Bodies

[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:54] [Pages No:96-99][No of Hits : 746]


ABSTRACT

It is frequently difficult to identify and localize intraorbital foreign bodies despite modern-day high-resolution imaging studies. Although there can be grave complications associated with retention of organic intraorbital foreign bodies, many believe that removal of such bodies in most cases is unwarranted. A high clinical suspicion, proper choice of imaging studies, and removal by a skilled orbital surgeon probably make the risk of surgical exploration and foreign body removal less than the risk of foreign body retention. We present a case of extraconal foreign bodies (11 glass particles), which required exploration for retrieval. An initial bedside exploration led to locating two foreign bodies (glass particles of 2 × 2 cm and 1 × 1 cm size respectively). A second exploration in the ophthalmology operating theater yielded 11 foreign bodies (glass particles of various sizes) in the superior area of extraconal space.

Keywords: Computed tomography scan, Foreign body, Intraorbital, Tarsorrhaphy.

How to cite this article: Deshpande S, Israni NA, Narayanam S, Dhiware N. Multiple Intraorbital Glass Foreign Bodies. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(2):96-99.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Hemesh Shewale, Swetali Wadke, Olvyna D’souza, Sugam Preet Kaur

Anesthetic Management of Atonic Postpartum Hemorrhage with Hemorrhagic Shock and Impending Cardiac Arrest for Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomy

[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:54] [Pages No:103-104][No of Hits : 651]


ABSTRACT

Postpartum hemorrhagic complication is a critical situation for an anesthesiologist. This situation requires timely and skilful anesthetic management. A massive postpartum bleeding leading to severe hypovolemic shock may result in life-threatening cardiopulmonary arrest. The treatment of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) has two components: First, resuscitation and control of bleeding and second, identification and management of underlying cause. Here is a case report of a 20-year-old with atonic PPH resulting in hypovolemic shock and impending cardiac arrest and successful anesthetic management for emergency peripartum hysterectomy to save the life of the patient.

Keywords: Cardiac arrest, Hypovolemic shock, Hysterectomy, Postpartum hemorrhage, Rapid sequence induction.

How to cite this article: Shewale H, Wadke S, D’souza O, Kaur SP. Anesthetic Management of Atonic Postpartum Hemorrhage with Hemorrhagic Shock and Impending Cardiac Arrest for Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomy. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(2):103-104.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Ashis K Saha, Kausik Munsi, Payodhi Dhar

Blood Culture and Sensitivity Profile Study in a Tertiary Medical Hospital in Kolkata, West Bengal: 7 Years’ Experience

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:56] [Pages No:18-25][No of Hits : 635]


ABSTRACT

Aims and objectives: To identify the prevalence of bacteremia and the spectrum of antimicrobial sensitivity in our community, because it will guide the clinician to institute proper antimicrobial therapy.

Background: Bacteremia originates from either intravascular sites or extraVascular sites. In case of bloodstream infection, either Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria are responsible. Of these bacterial isolates, Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for higher mortality and morbidity. Since 20 to 30 years, coagulase-negative Staphylococci are responsible for most infection.

Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, blood samples were collected aseptically from 11,581 patients and were injected into the bottles containing bile-broth and brainheart infusion broth and allowed to be incubated at 37°. Then subculture was done on blood agar, chocolate agar, as well as MacConkey agar media and was kept for 7 days or till the appearance of growth of the organism. After identification of isolates, Kirby Bauer disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar II was performed to detect antimicrobial sensitivity.

Results: Our study documented 8.58% positive cultures in the last 7 years. Gram-negative bacterial isolates were significantly higher than Gram-positive isolates (64.19% vs 34.80%, p = 0.00). Lowest number of positivity was seen in Morganella (0.40%) followed by Proteus (0.50%) and Enterococcus faecium (0.90%) in ascending order. Males were significantly more culture positive than females (549/994 vs 445/994, p = 0.00). Most common bacterial isolates were (coagulase negative Staphylococci) CoNS (239, 24.04%) followed by Klebsiella including ESBL (extended spectrum beta-lactamase), carbapenamase producer (234, 23.74%) and Escherichia coli (110, 11.06%). E. coli was >75% sensitive to imipenem group, polymyxin B (98.18%), colistin (96.36%), and amikacin (80.9%). Coagulase negativeStaphylococci showed more than 60% sensitivity to levofloxacin (76.98%), amikacin (82.84%), tigecycline (87.44%), vancomycin (94.45%), teicoplanin (91.63%), linezolid (91.21%), gentamicin (76.56%), netilmicin (74.47%), and tetracycline (75.31%). Klebsiella (non-ESBL and carbapenemase producer) was highly sensitive to polymyxin B (93.06%), colistin (91.90%), meropenem (65.31%), and imipenem (94.73%). Extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella showed increased sensitivity to meropenem (89.47%), imipenem (94.73%), ertapenem (81.57%), polymyxin B, and colistin (97.36% each).

Conclusion: Positive cultures were 8.58% in the last 7 years. Gram negative bacterial isolates were significantly higher. Males were more culture positive. Most common bacterial isolates were CoNS followed by Klebsiella species and E. coli. Gram-negative bacterial isolates were highly sensitive to piperacillin, cefoperazone, imipenem, meropenem, aminoglycoside group of antibiotics, tigecycline, polymyxin B and colistin. Gram-positive bacterial isolates were sensitive to piperacillin, cefoparazone, vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid and clindamycin. Salmonella typhi were sensitive to ampicillin, cefoparazone, cefepime, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, and fluoroquinolones. Acinetobacter showed > 50% sensitivity to cefepime and Pseudomonas showed > 50% sensitivity to cefotaxime and levofloxacin. So to prevent resistance of bacterial isolates, a proper antibiotic guideline should be maintained.

Keywords: Blood culture and sensitivity, Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. coli, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates, Klebsiella, Tertiary care hospital.

How to cite this article: Saha AK, Munsi K, Dhar P. Blood Culture and Sensitivity Profile Study in a Tertiary Medical Hospital in Kolkata, West Bengal: 7 Years’ Experience. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(1):18-25.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Shaurya Rohatgi, Sushma Naveen, Satish Udare, Hemangi R Jerajani

Pigmented Purpuric Dermatoses

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:49] [Pages No:131-135][No of Hits : 629]


ABSTRACT

Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD) are a group of histopathologically similar conditions that are primarily differentiated based on morphology. The basic pathological finding is a lymphocytic perivascular infiltrate with hemorrhage limited to the papillary dermis without fibrinoid necrosis of the vessels. The etiology is unknown; they run a chronic course and are fairly resistant to treatment. We present this review for the physicians to kindle interest in this not-so-uncommon entity.

Keywords: Pigmented purpuric dermatoses, Purpura, Schamberg‖s disease.

How to cite this article: Rohatgi S, Naveen S, Udare S, Jerajani HR. Pigmented Purpuric Dermatoses. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(3):131-135.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Sushil Kumar, Shaifali Patil, Siddharth Shah, Nimisha Srivastava

Uterine Transplantation: An Option beyond Surrogacy

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:49] [Pages No:141-143][No of Hits : 601]


ABSTRACT

Over the years, a lot has developed in the field of infertility and artificial reproductive techniques worldwide, but the uterine factor infertility still remains an unresolved issue in reproductive medicine. Absolute uterine factor infertility is synonymous with congenital absence of uterus or a physiologically nonfunctioning uterus. Very few options including surrogacy and adoption are available for these patients. Both surrogacy and adoption are associated with legal, ethical, financial, religious, and psychological issues. For some of these patients, uterine transplant could be a viable option in future. However, the ability of uterus to carry the pregnancy to the period of viability and the effect of immunosuppressant on the fetus make the uterine transplant a more complex operation than any other transplants. From the earliest uterine transplant tried in 1931 in Germany to the first successful child birth following transplant in Sweden in 2014, uterine transplantation has come a long way. Among the countries that have tried this till now, Sweden has reported five cases of successful births posttransplant. Behind these successful cases, there is dedication and perseverance of few individuals who continued their efforts in spite of repeated failures. At the moment, the uterine transplant can be considered experimental at the best. However, considering the large number of hysterectomies done all over the world and uteruses available for transplantation, uterine transplant has potential to surpass, in numbers, the other transplant in near future.

Keywords: Artificial reproduction techniques, Reproductive medicine, Uterine factor infertility, Uterine transplant.

How to cite this article: Kumar S, Patil S, Shah S, Srivastava N. Uterine Transplantation: An Option beyond Surrogacy. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(3):141-143.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Sarabjeet Kohli, Nilesh Vishwakarma, Shaival Chauhan, Kuldeep Salgotrar

Use of Deltoid Splitting Approach for Neer’s Type II and III Proximal Humerus Fractures treated with Angular Stable Locking Plate

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:4] [Pages:55] [Pages No:167-171][No of Hits : 594]


ABSTRACT

We studied outcomes in 35 patients having Neer’s type II and III proximal humerus fractures who underwent surgery in our center. All fractures were fixed with angular stable locking plate through Deltoid splitting approach. There was no incidence of nonunion and no axillary nerve injury. Varus malunion occurred in 6% of cases. Deltoid function remained satisfactory in all patients. Overall results were excellent in 60%, good in 35%, and fair in 5%. Based on this study, we feel that the Deltoid splitting approach is associated with much better outcomes for treating Neer’s type II and III proximal humerus fractures because it is less invasive, requires minimal soft tissue dissection, and lessens the chances of axillary nerve injury and Deltoid dysfunction.

Keywords: Axillary nerve injury, Proximal humerus fracture, Trans-Deltoid approach.

How to cite this article: Kohli S, Vishwakarma N, Chauhan S, Salgotra K. Use of Deltoid Splitting Approach for Neer’s Type II and III Proximal Humerus Fractures treated with Angular Stable Locking Plate. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(4):167-171.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Madhur S Rai, Yashoda R Kattimani, Sandeep U Rai, Mahesh Chandak

Effect of Sahaja Yoga Meditation on Heart Rate Variability

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:49] [Pages No:126-130][No of Hits : 568]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nowadays, people are showing a keen interest in yoga and meditation as an alternative therapy to manage psychological stress and stress-related diseases. Yoga is a spiritual discipline with many proven health benefits. There are different types of yoga techniques practiced worldwide for their known health enhancement effects and for reduction of stress and its related disorders. One of the meditation techniques is Sahaja Yoga. It is a unique technique of meditation that involves mental state of internalized attention characterized by mental silence and emotionally positive experience of bliss. The present study has been undertaken to find out the heart rate variability (HRV) in Sahaja Yoga meditators during rest and meditation.

Objectives: To study the HRV in Sahaja Yoga meditators during rest and meditation.

Materials and methods: A total of 20 volunteers aged 25 to 40 years were considered for the study. The volunteers were practicing Sahaja Yoga meditation (SYM) regularly for 5 years or more. The HRV was recorded during rest with eyes closed and 15 minutes of SYM in a quiet room.

Results: Statistical analysis was done using student paired t test. Results are given as mean ± standard deviation (SD). The mean R-R interval, total power (TP), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio were studied during rest and during meditation. The HF (during rest 16.2383 ± 11.1896 and during meditation 28.4875 ± 14.5112) was high and LF/HF ratio (during rest 2.262211 ± 1.346382 and during meditation 1.30545 ± 1.200041) was low during meditation compared with that during rest, which was statistically significant.

Conclusion: Increase in HF and decrease in LF/HF ratio during meditation signifies that meditation shifts sympathovagal balance toward the parasympathetic side, hence signifying a relaxed state of body and mind in Sahaja Yoga meditators.

Keywords: Heart rate variability, Meditation, Sahaja Yoga meditators, Stress, Sympathovagal balance.

How to cite this article: Rai MS, Kattimani YR, Rai SU, Chandak M. Effect of Sahaja Yoga Meditation on Heart Rate Variability. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(3):126-130.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Nilesh S Paul, Raman P Yadav

A Simple Biogenic Method for the Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Syngonium podophyllum, an Ornamental Plant

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:49] [Pages No:111-115][No of Hits : 563]


ABSTRACT

The potential of ornamental plant Syngonium podophyllum leaf extract has been explored for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, which was confirmed by appearance of absorption peak at 420 nm in ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrum. Silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical in shape and size observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was in the range of 11 to 26 nm. A sharp signal recorded at 3 keV under energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum indicated the presence of elemental silver nanoparticles. Zeta potential was measured as -26.77 mV, which indicated the presence of moderately stable silver nanoparticles in the solution. Under Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), two prominent bands were assigned, i.e., 3,454.89 cm-1 represents the O-H stretching vibration and 1,637.46 cm-1 represents the -NH stretching vibration of the amide group. It indicates that protein might be responsible for the synthesis.

Keywords: Characterization, Green synthesis, Silver nanoparticles, Syngonium podophyllum.

How to cite this article: Paul NS, Yadav RP. A Simple Biogenic Method for the Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Syngonium podophyllum, an Ornamental Plant. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(3):111-115.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of Interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Amita A Bhagit, Sveeta V Mhatre, Raman P Yadav

Biofabrication of Bifunctional Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles using Phaseolus vulgaris with Enhanced Antioxidant and Carbonic Anhydrase Class 1 Inhibitory Activity

[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:4] [Pages:55] [Pages No:161-166][No of Hits : 559]


ABSTRACT

A new biogenic eco-friendly and simple method of synthesizing cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) using aqueous seed extract of the food plant Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is described. The NPs were analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Their size was in the range of 97 to 103 nm, and they exhibited enhanced antioxidant and carbonic anhydrase class 1 inhibitory activities in vitro. This method is very cost-effective and simple. These bifunctional CeO2NPs might find potential applications in various domains of biomedical research and in fabricating targeted pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Biosynthesis, Carbonic anhydrase inhibition, Cerium oxide nanoparticles, Phaseolus vulgaris.

How to cite this article: Bhagit AA, Mhatre SV, Yadav RP. Biofabrication of Bifunctional Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles using Phaseolus vulgaris with Enhanced Antioxidant and Carbonic Anhydrase Class 1 Inhibitory Activity. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(4):161-166.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Rahul V Kadam, Vishal Bahuva, Dylan Goves, Krutarth Shah

A Prospective Comparative Study of Post Total Knee Arthroplasty Pain Management by Epidural vs Local Infiltration

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:49] [Pages No:122-125][No of Hits : 555]


ABSTRACT

In a randomized controlled trial, we compared whether local infiltration analgesia would result in better pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) than epidural analgesia (EA). Two groups were made with 30 patients each. Group local infiltration analgesia (LIA) with a total of 30 patients (mean age of 65 years) received LIA with a periarticular injection of a mixture of ropivacaine, adrenaline, and ketorolac that was prepared under strict sterile conditions. In group EA, 30 patients (mean age of 67 years) were given EA. There was no statistically significant difference of pain at rest. The mean opioid consumption was higher in those receiving local infiltration. Most secondary outcomes were similar, but EA patients had lower pain scores when walking and during continuous passive movement. If EA is not readily available, local infiltration provides similar length of stay and similar pain scores at rest following TKA.

Keywords: Epidural analgesia, Local infiltration analgesia, Pain management, Total knee replacement, Visual analog scale.

How to cite this article: Kadam RV, Bahuva V, Goves D, Shah K. A Prospective Comparative Study of Post Total Knee Arthroplasty Pain Management by Epidural vs Local Infiltration. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(3):122-125.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of Interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Alaka K Deshpande, Shamshersingh G Chauhan, Ankita Sood

Asymptomatic Patient with Unrecordable Blood Pressure: Could It be Takayasu?

[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:49] [Pages No:144-147][No of Hits : 550]


ABSTRACT

Takayasu‖s arteritis is a rare, systemic inflammatory vasculitis of large vessels that usually affects women of childbearing age. Also known as pulseless disease or occlusive thromboaortopathy, the disease is named after the Japanese ophthalmologist who in 1905 described a form of retinal arteriovenous anastomoses due to retinal ischemia caused by large vessel vasculitis. We present here a case of a young female who presented with stroke. The patient had stroke which eventually recovered but now was referred for evaluation of her unrecordable blood pressure.

Keywords: Blood pressure, Stroke, Takayasu‖s arteritis.

How to cite this article: Deshpande AK, Chauhan SG, Sood A. Asymptomatic Patient with Unrecordable Blood Pressure: Could It be Takayasu? MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(3):144-147.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
John Dent

Essential Skills in Medical Education for Students: An Online Course in Medical Education for the Doctors of Tomorrow

[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:54] [Pages No:81-83][No of Hits : 524]


ABSTRACT

There is a growing awareness of the importance of students being engaged with their medical school and curriculum. The student version of Essential Skills in Medical Education (ESME) has been designed as an accessible online course. It provides an opportunity for interested students to begin to develop understanding in this topic and seeks to motivate their further interest in the teaching role of a doctor for tomorrow.

Keywords: Medical education, Online course, Student engagement.

How to cite this article: Dent J. Essential Skills in Medical Education for Students: An Online Course in Medical Education for the Doctors of Tomorrow. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(2):81-83.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Kuldip R Salgotra, Sarabjeet Kohli, Nilesh Vishwakarma, Shaival Chavan

Cemented Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Study of 100 Cases

[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:54] [Pages No:62-65][No of Hits : 514]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: The cemented total hip athroplasty (THA) has been in existence for about three decades; however, objective outcome analysis of patients subjected to this procedure in India is lacking. At Joint Replacement Centre, Military Hospital (MH), Kirkee, Pune, Maharashtra, India, a large database of total hip arthroplasties exists. The cemented hip arthroplasties are being done regularly at MGM Medical College & Hospital, Kamothe. However, the functional results of cemented hips operated from 2003 to 2015 have been analyzed to assess the objective outcome.

Materials and methods: A prospective and retrospective study of 100 cemented hips in 92 patients between 26 and 78 years of age was carried out. Sixty-one (74%) patients were in the age group of 50 to 70 years. The diagnosis of these patients was avascular necrosis: 40; rheumatoid arthritis: 15; ankylosing spondylitis: 8; osteoarthritis: 12; fracture neck femur: 16; and fracture femoral head: 1. In all patients, cemented THA using Indian Orthopedics (INOR) indigenous and Zimmer implants were done. Three types of implants were used, Charnley 22 mm head, 26 mm head using INOR modular system and collarless polished tapered Zimmer system. Eight cases had bilateral involvement. The cases were followed up for varying periods from 1 to 10 years.

Results: The results were assessed by utilizing Charnley activity and pain score. There were 83% excellent, 8% good, 5% fair, and 4% poor results. Three cases required revision, two because of frank loosening, and one due to acetabular malpositioning. Charnley pain score improved from 2.2 preoperatively to 5.2 postoperatively (+ 28.3% change).

Conclusion: The cemented THA is an excellent salvage procedure for advanced hip disorders resulting in pain and disability, especially in late age groups beyond 50 years.

Keywords: Avascular necrosis, Deep vein thrombosis, Indigenous implants, Total hip arthroplasty, Zimmer implants.

How to cite this article: Salgotra KR, Kohli S, Vishwakarma N, Chavan S. Cemented Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Study of 100 Cases. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(2):62-65.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Varsha Reddy Jayar, Dattatrai More

Geriatric Care: Are We Patient Friendly?

[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:56] [Pages No:12-17][No of Hits : 502]


ABSTRACT

Objectives: To study family satisfaction of medical care to geriatric patients and to find out any difference in family satisfaction given by geriatric specialist and general medicine specialist. Indian data on family’s perception of geriatric care is lacking.

Materials and methods: All geriatric patients who were admitted between March 2015 and September 2015 in medical wards and where hospital stay was more than 3 days were included. An internationally validated family satisfaction questionnaire was used and administered to family member of each patient admitted. Scores were graded on Likert scale under five important areas like staff interaction, support services, quality of medical care, medical communication, and facilities. Special comments were analyzed separately.

Results: Patients’ family members were most satisfied with quality of medical care and facilities (95%), followed by staff interaction and support facilities. Satisfaction regarding medical communication and services was poor (60%). There was no significant difference for satisfaction/perception of quality of care given by geriatric specialist and general medicine specialist.

Conclusion: Medical communication and support services of long-term care of geriatric patients are an important area of improvement. Family perception of geriatric care is vital to overall delivery of health care to this vulnerable group of patients. Support facilities specifically designed for geriatric patients need to be strengthened. There was no significant difference in perception of care offered by geriatric specialist and general medicine specialist.

Keywords: Family satisfaction, Geriatric care, Geriatric care specialist medicine.

How to cite this article: Jayar VR, More D. Geriatric Care: Are We Patient Friendly? MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(1):12-17.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Archit Pankaj Patel, Jayant N Karbhase, Rajiv Kumar Srivastava, Sameer Sudhirchandra Kadam Shibban K Kaul, Mrunal Langote

Tertiary Prevention of Ischemic Heart Disease: Post Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:4] [Pages:49] [Pages No:192-197][No of Hits : 2665]


ABSTRACT

Coronary heart disease is more prevalent in Indian urban populations and there is a clear declining gradient in its prevalence from semi-urban to rural populations. Epidemiological studies show a sizeable burden of coronary heart disease in adult rural (3-5%) and urban (7-10%) populations. Thus, of the 30 million patients with coronary heart disease in India, there would be 14 million who are in urban and 16 million in rural areas. In India, about 50% of coronary heart disease-related deaths occur in people younger than 70 years compared with only 22% in the West. Extrapolation of these numbers estimates the burden of coronary heart disease in India to be more than 32 million patients. In India, there are large spectrums of patients who present at tertiary stage when first examined. These patients are left with very little margin of safety. Heart disease is one of the commonest causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a frequently used cardiothoracic revascularization to treat coronary artery disease (CAD).
In addition to physical impairments and activity restrictions in the immediate postoperative period, patients encounter some obstacles to exhibit improvements in quality of life in the long run. Cardiac tertiary prevention programs generally consist of the prevention of disease progression and patient suffering. Aim of these interventions is to reduce the negative impact of disease by restoring function and reducing disease-related complications and therefore, include the rehabilitation of disabling conditions. Cardiac rehabilitation programs are interventions aimed to reduce mortality and morbidity of patients with ischemic heart diseases through promoting a healthier lifestyle among patients. These programs are used to restore, maintain, or improve both physiologic and psychosocial outcomes and finally the quality of life in patients through a combination of exercise, education and psychological support.

Keywords: Cardiac surgery, Cardiac tertiary prevention programs, Coronary artery bypass grafting, Coronary heart disease.

How to cite this article: Patel AP, Karbhase JN, Srivastava RK, Kadam SS, Kaul SK, Langote M. Tertiary Prevention of Ischemic Heart Disease: Post Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(4):192-197.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Rahul Vishwasrao Kadam, Luv Shyamlal Mukhi, Aniruddha Gajanan Deshmukh, Vishal Dinesh Bahuva

Hungry Bone Syndrome due to Primary Parathyroid Adenoma with Multiple Bone Fractures

[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:103-105][No of Hits : 2141]


ABSTRACT

Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) refers to the rapid, profound, and prolonged hypocalcemia associated with hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia which follows parathyroidectomy in patients with severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and preoperative high bone turnover. It is a relatively uncommon, but serious adverse effect of parathyroidectomy. The severe hypocalcemia is believed to be due to increased influx of calcium into bone, due to the sudden removal of the effect of high circulating levels of PTH on osteoclastic resorption, leading to a decrease in the activation frequency of new remodeling sites and to a decrease in remodeling space, although there is no good documentation for this. Various risk factors have been suggested for the development of HBS, including older age, weight/volume of the resected parathyroid glands, radiological evidence of bone disease and vitamin D deficiency. The syndrome is reported in 25 to 90% of patients with radiological evidence of hyperparathyroid bone disease vs only 0 to 6% of patients without skeletal involvement. There is insufficient data-based evidence on the best means to treat, minimize or prevent this severe complication of parathyroidectomy. Treatment is aimed at replenishing the severe calcium deficit by using high doses of calcium supplemented by high doses of active metabolites of vitamin D. Preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates has been suggested to reduce postoperative hypocalcemia, but there are to date no prospective studies addressing this issue.

Keywords: Bisphosphonates, Hyperparathyroid bone disease, Osteoclastic resorption, Parathyroidectomy, Postoperative hypocalcemia.

How to cite this article: Kadam RV, Mukhi LS, Deshmukh AG, Bahuva VD. Hungry Bone Syndrome due to Primary Parathyroid Adenoma with Multiple Bone Fractures. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):103-105.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Nilesh S Paul, Revati Sharma, Raman P Yadav

Biological Synthesis of Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles by Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Extract

[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:1-6][No of Hits : 1597]


ABSTRACT

Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles is generally a time-consuming process in comparison to chemical process. Despite voluminous reports on biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles, there is still a challenge to develop fast synthesis of nanoparticles in the range of minutes/seconds through biological route. Several disadvantages are generally being posed by slow biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles including cost of operation. To overcome this difficulty, fast and simple method has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, using Phaseolus vulgaris seed extract simply by increasing the temperature. The method is very quick and the color change of the reaction can be observed within 20 seconds. This process was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles within 80 seconds at 100oC which was confirmed by absorption peak at 413.79 nm in UV-visible spectrum. Initially, it was observed that P. vulgaris seed extract was unable to synthesize silver nanoparticles at 37oC even after 24 hours. The silver nanoparticles generated by this method were predominantly spherical in shape and in the range of approximately 4 to 30 nm in size, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). On FTIR analysis, it was found that the nanoparticles possessed definite surface exposed groups. Generated silver nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Thus, this biological process offers a simple, ecofriendly and very fast synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Very fast synthesis, Biological synthesis, Antimicrobial, Phaseolus vulgaris seed.

How to cite this article: Paul NS, Sharma R, Yadav RP. Biological Synthesis of Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles by Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Extract. MGM J Med Sci 2015; 2(1):1-6.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Amruta Sonawane Patil, Aruna Shankarkumar

Hepatitis B Diagnosis in Blood Bank: Evaluation and Challenges

[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:83-89][No of Hits : 1578]


ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) presents a higher residual risk of transmission by transfusion than hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). While most infectious blood units are removed by screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), there is clear evidence that transmission by HBsAg-negative components occurs, in part, during the serolo g ically negative window period, but more so during the late stages of infection.
To encourage voluntary blood donation should be the first step of prevention. To reduce the risk of transfusion-associated hepatitis B, test for anti-HBc immunoglobulin M may be included in routine screening of donors’ blood, as it has been proved to be an excellent indicator of occult HBV during window period. However, awareness and education of donors regarding the modes of HBV transmission, a stringent one-to-one donor screening and increasing the voluntary donor base should also be implemented to minimize the rate of transfusion-associated hepatitis B.

Keywords: Hepatitis B, HBV, Diagnosis, HBsAg, Nucleic acid testing, Voluntary blood donation.

How to cite this article: Patil AS, Shankarkumar A. Hepatitis B Diagnosis in Blood Bank: Evaluation and Challenges. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):83-89.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Arjun S Shenoi, Vijay Kadam, Jaishree Ghanekar

Effect of Smoking on Serum Lipid Levels: A Hospital-based Study

[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:13-15][No of Hits : 1431]


ABSTRACT

Aim: To study the effect of smoking on the levels of serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C in men between the age group of 20 and 30 years.

Materials and methods: The study recruited 50 smokers and 50 controls. Controls were age, BMI and dietary habits matched nonsmokers. The variables compared between the two groups were total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C. dyslipidemia with relation to the severity of smoking was studied in smoker group.

Results: The present study showed statistically significant differences in all variables in two groups (p < 0.001). Smokers as compared to nonsmokers had higher total cholesterol (189.14 ± 19.888 vs 159.22 ± 23.221 mg/dl), triglycerides (149.98 ± 32.068 vs 116.86 ± 19.937 mg/dl) and LDL-C (121.14 ± 18.212 vs 93.28 ± 23.726 mg/dl). While the mean HDL-C was lower in smokers as compared to nonsmokers (38.02 ± 4.515 vs 42.56 ± 3.215 mg/dl).

Conclusion: The prevalence of dyslipidemia in both smokers as well as nonsmokers according to the NCEP ATP III guidelines was 40% in smokers with just 18% in that of nonsmokers group. The study also showed a linear increase in the values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol with the severity of smoking which was statistically significant. While HDL-C levels linearly decreased when progressing through pack years.

Abbreviations: BMI: Body mass index; HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; LDL-C: Low-density lipoproteincholesterol; NCEP ATP III: National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult treatment panel III; VLDL-C: Very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; FFA: Free fatty acids.

Keywords: Lipid profile, Smoking, Smoking cessation.

How to cite this article: Shenoi AS, Kadam V, Ghanekar J. Effect of Smoking on Serum Lipid Levels: A Hospital-based Study. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(1):13-15.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Amrinder Singh, Nigam Arvind Deepchand, Shweta Shenoy, Rakesh Sharma, Jaspal Singh Sandhu

Anthropometric Profile in Relation to Playing Position of Elite Indian Soccer Players

[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:4] [Pages:49] [Pages No:188-191][No of Hits : 1329]


ABSTRACT

Background: Previous literature has demonstrated that each specialized playing position may have unique physical and physiological requirements. Body fat is highly related to playing position of football players.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine differences among positions in body size and percent body fat of elite football players prior to the start of regular season.

Subjects: The subjects of this study were 34 (10 forwards, 10 midfielders, 10 defenders, 4 goalkeepers) normal, healthy elite football players without any orthopedic, respiratory or cardiovascular problems.

Methods: Anthropometric profiles of the subjects were determined by measuring height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat. The prediction formula used to calculate percent body fat using BMI was: body fat % = (1.20 × BMI) + (0.23 × age) - (10.8 × gender) - 5.4 (R2 0.79, standard error estimate = 4.1% BF%), taking age and gender (male = 1, female = 0) into account.

Results: The results demonstrated significant differences (p < 0.005) in the percent body fat among the players of different playing positions. Goalkeepers possessed highest values for body fat percentage followed by defenders and forwards while midfielders had the least body fat percentage.

Conclusion: The study suggests that anthropometric characteristics differ in players of different playing positions. The differences found despite similar training protocol might be due to the physiological adaptations in the players.

Keywords: Anthropometric profile, Body mass index, Percent body fat, Playing position.

How to cite this article: Singh A, Deepchand NA, Shenoy S, Sharma R, Sandhu JS. Anthropometric Profile in Relation to Playing Position of Elite Indian Soccer Players. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(4):188-191.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Samir Uchadadia, Babita Ghodke, Kunal Bhuta, Amrit Kejriwal, Jaishree Ghanekar

Degree of Impairment of Liver Function in Dengue Fever Correlates to the Severity of its Complications

[Year:2015] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:56] [Pages No:115-119][No of Hits : 1248]


ABSTRACT

Background: Dengue fever with its severe manifestations, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) has emerged as a major public health problem of international concern. Dengue, presenting as dengue fever (DF) or DHF or DSS, also has some effect on liver function. This study was conducted to find out the impact of dengue on liver function and correlation between clinical manifestation of dengue fever and degree of liver injury.

Materials and methods: This prospective randomized study was done on 200 outpatient department/inpatient department (OPD/IPD) patients in age group of 12 to 60 years including both sexes who confirm to the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Investigation included measurements of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR) and creatinine. Degree of liver involvement was classified in four groups.

Results Out of 200 cases, 181 (90.5%) were diagnosed as dengue fever, nine (4.5%) as DHF, five (2.5%) as DSS, five (2.5%) as hepato-renal involvement; 24 (12.0%) had grade 0 liver injury, 126 (63.0%) had grade 1 liver injury, 34 (17%) had grade 2 liver injury, 10 (5.0%) had grade 3 liver injury and six (3.0%) had grade 4 liver injury.

Conclusion: Mild elevation of the liver enzymes is a common feature of dengue infection. There is high relation between the degree of liver damage and the appearance of the complications.

Keywords: Degree of liver injury, Dengue fever, Dengue hemorrhagic fever, Dengue shock syndrome, Prothrombin time.

How to cite this article: Uchadadia S, Ghodke B, Bhuta K, Kejriwal A, Ghanekar J. Degree of Impairment of Liver Function in Dengue Fever Correlates to the Severity of its Complications. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(3):115-119.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Nivritti G Patil, Amber LM YIP, Ip, Mary Sau Man

Pain and Joy in Implementation of Curriculum Reform: The University of Hong Kong Medical Faculty Experience

[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:98-102][No of Hits : 1226]


ABSTRACT

The University of Hong Kong (HKU) Li Ka Shing faculty of medicine (established 1886), introduced curriculum reform in 1997, and implemented problembased learning (PBL) as a part of hybrid curriculum. The reform made significant modi fi cations to timetabling including reorganization of basic sciences program into systembased blocks structured around PBL tutorials, lectures, practicals, demonstrations and relevant anatomy dissections. Assessment was also integrated at the faculty rather than departmental-based for the first three medical years.
During the reform, apprehension and concern in relation to outcomes and quality of graduates were raised, particularly on students’ basic science foundation and whether students would be able to cope with demands related to PBL. To address these concerns, a study was undertaken to evaluate new graduates’ performance from two aspects: (1) knowledgebased performance before their internship, and (2) onthejob performance during their internship, under the old and new curriculum.
To evaluate intern’s knowledgebased performance, a written test consisting of multiple choice questions and short answer questions, based on combination of basic sciences knowledge and clinical scenarios was given to two cohorts of old (2000-2001) and new (2002-2003) graduates. To evaluate graduate’s onthejob performance, scores from internship performance over the past 9 years were retrieved from the faculty. Results from the first 2 years of new curriculum graduates and the last two cohorts of old curriculum graduates demonstrated that they had similar basic sciences knowledgebased performance. On the other hand, new curriculum graduates did significantly better in their on-the-job internship performance. Areas of strength within our graduates were attitude to staff, sense of responsibility and attitude to patients.

Keywords: Curriculum reform, Problembased learning, University of Hong Kong, Medical education.

How to cite this article: Patil NG, Amber LM YIP, Ip, Mary Sau Man. Pain and Joy in Implementation of Curriculum Reform: The University of Hong Kong Medical Faculty Experience. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):98-102.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Rahul Vishwasrao Kadam, SK Mishra, Aniruddha Gajanan Deshmukh, Luv Shyamlal Mukhi

A Case of Bilateral Tibial Hemimelia Type IV and V with Bilateral Subdural Hygroma and Atrial Septal Defect

[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:52-55][No of Hits : 1223]


ABSTRACT

Congenital absence of tibia is a rare anomaly, and may be total or partial, unilateral or bilateral. Total absence is more frequent than partial, unilateral absence occurs more often than bilateral, with right limb more commonly affected than the left. In partial defect, almost always the distal end of the bone is affected and, of the bilateral cases, there may be total absence on both sides, or total on one side and partial on the other. Males are slightly more commonly affected than the females. Though, the family history is usually negative for congenital abnormalities and other diseases, there is a considerable chance of occurrence of congenital defect of the tibia or of other abnormalities, in near or remote relatives. We report a case of newborn having bilateral tibial hemimelia type V (right) and IV (left).

Keywords: Aplasia, Congenital anomaly, Tibial defect, Tibial hemimelia.

How to cite this article: Kadam RV, Mishra SK, Deshmukh AG, Mukhi LS. A Case of Bilateral Tibial Hemimelia Type IV and V with Bilateral Subdural Hygroma and Atrial Septal Defect. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(1):52-55.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Alfven E Vieira, Alpesh Chaudhary, Anurag Diwedi, Vaibhav

Proximal Humerus Nonunion: Operated with Fibular Strut Allograft and Locking Plate

[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:50-51][No of Hits : 1080]


ABSTRACT

Proximal humerus fracture is one of the common fractures seen in practice. Being metaphyseal region, it is less prone for nonunion. Although more than 80% of these heal with no surgical intervention, displaced unimpacted surgical neck fractures are associated with a higher incidence of nonunion with rates varying from less than 1% to as high as 23%. We report a case of 35-year-old male with nonunion following fracture of left proximal humerus.

Keywords: Proximal humerus nonunions, Fibular strut allograft, Locked plating, Fixed-angle plate.

How to cite this article: Vieira AE, Chaudhary A, Diwedi A, Vaibhav. Proximal Humerus Nonunion: Operated with Fibular Strut Allograft and Locking Plate. MGM J Med Sci 2014;2(1): 50-51.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
BR Patil, DP Patkar, SA Mandlik, CD Kapse, GD Jindal

Estimation of Body Fat Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Indian Adults Aged 23 to 81 Years: A Comparison with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:57-65][No of Hits : 1015]


ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to validate a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for prediction of body fat mass (FM) against dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy Indian adults with large variations in body mass index and age. Healthy subjects (28 males and 85 females) were investigated by two methods: FM was measured by a dual energy Xray absorptiometry and segmental bioelectrical parameters at various frequencies were measured by a commercial segmental multifrequency BIA instrument. Total body parameters were derived from segmental bioelectrical parameters. As correlation was high and prediction error was low, a single equation was developed for FM as follows: FM = 15.45 + [0.0074 × (Rbody250)] - (3.89 × sex); men = 1, women = 0) + (0.844 × w) - [6938 × (h2/Zbody50)] - (22.22 × h) + [3 × (Xbody250 - Xbody5)/age)] + [1.53 × (Φbody5)] - [0.126 × (Xbody50/h)]. Fat mass predicted with dual energy Xray absorptiometry was 28.11 ± 9.30 kg. BIApredicted FM was 28.12 ± 9.11 kg (R = 0.9794, adjusted R2 = 0.9561, standard error of estimate = 1.95 kg, total error = 1.87 kg). In conclusion, the new developed BIA equation was valid for prediction of FM in healthy subjects aged 23 to 81 years with body mass indices between 15.62 and 39.98 kg.m-2. Inclusion of reactance in the kg.m-2 single prediction equation appeared to be essential for use of BIA equation in adults with large variations in body mass and age.

Keywords: Bioelectrical impedance analysis, Body fat mass, Body parameters, Dual energy Xray absorptiometry.

How to cite this article: Patil BR, Patkar DP, Mandlik SA, Kapse CD, Jindal GD. Estimation of Body Fat Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Indian Adults Aged 23 to 81 Years: A Comparison with Dual Energy Xray Absorptiometry. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):57-65.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Indrashis Bhattacharya, Subeer S Majumdar

Male Infertility: Present and Future

[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:16-24][No of Hits : 1009]


ABSTRACT

During the last decade, a sudden decline in human male fertility has become a global concern. Genetic, endocrine and life style related problems are generally considered to be the underlie causes. However, several cases have been reported where hormones fail to promote spermatogenesis. The reason of such reproductive malfunctioning leading to male infertility remains idiopathic. Therefore, a sincere attention with a coordinated multidisciplinary effort by the andrologists, urologists and basic scientists is needed to understand the regulation of the sperm production. Powerful tools like high through put gene expression analyses, genetically manipulated mouse models and tissue culture or transplantation based assays are now available, increasing the scope of a establishing a special line of therapy for idiopathic male infertility. In this review, we have briefly summarized various categories of male infertility with emphasis on current research advancement in this field.

Keywords: Male infertility, Primary testicular failure, Testicular dysgenesis syndrome, Spermatogenesis.

How to cite this article: Bhattacharya I, Majumdar SS. Male Infertility: Present and Future. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(1): 16-24.

Source of support: UGC, DBT, ICMR.

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Shaurya Rohatgi, KH Basavaraj

Metabolic and Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Psoriasis: Revisited

[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:25-38][No of Hits : 965]


ABSTRACT

There is increasing awareness that psoriasis, as a disease, is more than ‘skin deep’ and associated with comorbidities that potentially increase morbidity and mortality, and lower quality of life. The consistency of association and the diversity of comorbidities reported in psoriasis warrants it to be labeled as a complex syndrome. Merely finding an association between psoriasis and comorbidities is not going to suffice until this evidence is put into clinical practice. The pathogenesis of psoriasis and its comorbidities is complex but several studies have revealed certain mechanisms and factors which are common to both. These shared pathogenic mechanisms solve the mystery to this comorbid association, especially with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Studying these pathogenic links may reveal certain parameters which can be utilized as potential biomarkers in the presumptive screening of patients for the presence of comorbidities. These shared pathogenic mechanisms hold the key toward establishing a novel biomarker which can monitor both the disease severity and the associated comorbidity. Psoriasis patients with comorbidities also incur more healthcare costs, than those without comorbidities. Cardiovascular comorbidity in psoriasis incurs the greatest increase in healthcare resource use. Early detection of cardiovascular and other comorbid conditions in psoriasis can possibly reduce the morbidity, mortality, and economic burden associated with the disease. We attempt to review the pathogenic links between psoriasis and its metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities.

Keywords: Psoriasis, Cardiovascular, Metabolic syndrome, Comorbidity.

How to cite this article: Rohatgi S, Basavaraj KH. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Psoriasis: Revisited. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(1):25-38.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
Deepa R Jayaram, Surekha Mude, Nitin N Kadam

Successful Pregnancy and Delivery with Good Maternal and Fetal Outcome in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:110-113][No of Hits : 879]


ABSTRACT

Conception and successful completion of pregnancy is rare in women with end-stage kidney disease. Given the rising burden of chronic kidney disease, it is quite common to see more women in their childbearing ages being diagnosed with the condition. As the kidney disease progresses, fertility chances reduce and pregnancy becomes a rarity. In addition to dealing with dialysis and its consequences, the women with end-stage kidney disease also face the trauma of infertility and inability to start their families. At such times, pregnancy and delivery following successful kidney transplantation with return of normal kidney function, offers a ray of hope to women of childbearing ages. We report the case of a young woman with end-stage renal/kidney disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis for 2 years, who underwent cadaveric kidney transplantation with subsequent excellent allograft function. Two years post-transplantation, she went ahead with a successful pregnancy and delivery of a normal birth weight baby, and preserved renal allograft function.

Keywords: Kidney transplant recipient, Maternal outcomes, Pregnancy.

How to cite this article: Jayaram DR, Mude S, Kadam NN. Successful Pregnancy and Delivery with Good Maternal and Fetal Outcome in a Kidney Transplant Recipient. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):110-113.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
John Dent

Beyond the Hospital Wards: Moving Clinical Teaching toward Ambulatory Care Venues

[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:39-43][No of Hits : 856]


ABSTRACT

As the style of healthcare delivery and patient expectations of medical care changes, there is a move toward more patient care and investigation being supplied beyond hospital wards in outpatient and other ambulatory care venues. Arguments are now being made that more undergraduate teaching should be provided in these venues where clinical problems more appropriate for student learning can be seen. But where can such venues be found, how can student learning be supported in these situations and who can help in student teaching beyond the traditional hospital wards?

Keywords: Ambulatory care, Outpatient clinics, Hospital, Teaching, Health education.

How to cite this article: Dent J. Beyond the Hospital Wards: Moving Clinical Teaching toward Ambulatory Care Venues. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(1):39-43.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Original Article
Archana Mishra, Prakash P Doke

Assessing the Gap in Policies of Human Resources, Quality and Communication for Indian Teaching Hospitals

[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:7-12][No of Hits : 846]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Teaching hospital is one of the apex bodies of Indian hospital system, which is catering to much desired healthcare needs of both rural and poor urban society.

Objectives: The study examines the status of Indian teaching hospitals both government and private in the changing global scenario by assessing the gaps in their management practices based on three core parameters, i.e. human resource management, quality improvement and patient safety, and communication and patient relation through their adherence to documentation and policy with respect to the expected norms nationally and internationally. The standards were chosen from Joint Commission of International Accreditation (JCIA) in concurrence with National Accreditation Board for Hospitals and Healthcare Providers (NABH) to ensure comprehensiveness and appropriateness to Indian environment.

Design and settings: Eleven teaching hospitals were selected from the 6 divisions of Maharashtra (minimum 1 from smaller division and 2 or above from larger division). The medical superintendent was interviewed from each 11 hospital. The responses were given scores, such as 10, 5, 0 (full, partial, no compliance).

Results: The overall scores for policy/documentation were 6.29 ± 1.96, 5.00 ± 3.06 and 2.95 ± 2.48 for HRM, quality and communication respectively, among teaching hospitals. Moreover, there were significant gaps among all 6 standards of human resource management (HRM) [F(5,60) = 24.217, p < 0.001], quality/ safety [F(5,60) = 21.524, p < 0.05] and communication [F(10,55) = 10.455; p < 0.05] on their own. Indeed, these hospitals were found to be significantly behind the global standards.

Conclusion: Teaching hospitals comply with norms of staff, qualifications and department-wise infrastructure as part of Medical Council of India (MCI) regulations, which is prerequisite for global standards. So by designing hospital’s policies with inclusion of some cost-effective approaches, these hospitals can attain quality services.

Keywords: Communication, Globalization, Human resource management, Teaching hospitals.

How to cite this article: Mishra A, Doke PP. Assessing the Gap in Policies of Human Resources, Quality and Communication for Indian Teaching Hospitals. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(1):7-12.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
S Gupta, N Saluja, P Goyal, B Choudhary

A Comparative Evaluation of Levobupivacaine Hydrochloride and Levobupivacaine Hydrochloride with Dexmedetomidine in Epidural Anesthesia and Postoperative Pain Relief undergoing Infraumbilical Surgeries

[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:78-82][No of Hits : 838]


ABSTRACT

Epidural anesthesia is a versatile technique which is widely used for surgeries for providing intra- and postoperative analgesia. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the action of the local anesthetic agent used.

Aims and objectives: We performed prospective randomized, double blinded controlled study on 90 patients to compare the effects of adding of dexmedetomidine to levobupivacaine in prolonging the analgesia produced by epidural levobupivacaine alone in patients undergoing infraumbilical surgeries and also compared the duration of motor block and sedation scores.

Materials and methods: Ninety American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I and II patients (18-60 years), under going infraumbilical surgery, were prospectively randomized to one of two groups to receive epidural anesthesia with 17 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine + 3 ml of normal saline (group L) or epidural anesthesia with 17 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine with 75 mg (0.75 ml) of dexmedetomidine +2.25 ml of normal saline (group LD). Various parameters hemodynamic changes, onset time of sensory and motor blockade, highest level of sensory blockade, duration of sensory and motor block, postoperative pain using visual analog scale (VAS) score, and any side-effects were recorded and data were statistical analyzed using student’s t-test by statistics calculator SPSS software.

Results: The two study groups were similar for mean age, weight and duration of surgery. Mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in group LD (438.33 ± 38.72 min) than in group L(271.2±23.77 min); p<0.05. Onset time of sensory and motor blockade was significantly less in group LD as compared to group L; p< 0.05. Duration of sensory and motor block was significantly higher in group LD when compared tog roup L(p < 0.05). More sedation was observed in group LD.

Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine in a dose of 75 µg added as an adjuvant to 0.5% levobupivacaine for epidural anesthesia, during infraumbilical surgeries, prolongs the duration of analgesia of levobupivacaine and increases postoperative sedation, without any other adverse effects.

Keywords: Dexmedetomidine, Epidural anesthesia, Postoperative analgesia, Levobupivacaine.

How to cite this article: Gupta S, Saluja N, Goyal P, Choudhary B. A Comparative Evaluation of Levobupivacaine Hydrochloride and Levobupivacaine Hydrochloride with Dexmedetomidine in Epidural Anesthesia and Postoperative Pain Relief undergoing Infraumbilical Surgeries. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):78-82.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
CASE REPORT
AK Verma, Saurabh Chaturvedi, M Ali, Ankit Suhag, Saurabh Bhargava, Himani Yadav

Fabrication of Hollow Bulb Obturator with Maxillary Partial Denture for Congenital Cleft Palate Defect

[Year:2015] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:56] [Pages No:161-164][No of Hits : 808]


ABSTRACT

Rehabilitation of congenital cleft palate defect improves the quality of life for the patient as normal as possible. Obturator size depends on defect’s size and volume. The prosthesis should be easy to handle, simple to maintain, biocompatible, light in weight and conventional for future adjustments. This case report describes a cleft palate patient, which was rehabilitated with a hollow bulb obturator.

Keywords: Cleft palate, Hollow bulb obturator, Maxillofacial defects, Rehabilitation.

How to cite this article: Verma AK, Chaturvedi S, Ali M, Suhag A, Bhargava S, Yadav H. Fabrication of Hollow Bulb Obturator with Maxillary Partial Denture for Congenital Cleft Palate Defect. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(3):161-164.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Vandana Varma, Sonal Sogani, Purnima Dey Sarkar

Comparative Study of Serum Calcium and Magnesium in Pre-eclamptic Pregnancies in Third Trimester and its Comparison with Healthy Normotensive Nonpregnant and Pregnant Women and to Evaluate their role in Pregnancy-induced Hypertension

[Year:2015] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:56] [Pages No:137-141][No of Hits : 796]


ABSTRACT

Background: Despite numerous studies, the etiology of preeclampsia has not been fully elucidated. The study of serum calcium and serum magnesium is gaining ground in the pathophysiology of hypertension.

Objective: A comparative study of serum calcium and serum magnesium in women with pre-eclamptic pregnancy and its comparison with healthy normotensive nonpregnant women and healthy normotensive pregnant women in third trimester.

Materials and methods: Serum calcium and serum magnesium were measured in 52 women with pre-eclampsia in their trimester of pregnancy as patients group, and in 73 healthy normotensive nonpregnant women and 65 healthy normotensive pregnant women as control groups with similar maternal and gestational ages. Pre-eclamptic group was further divided into two subgroups mild (n = 36) and severe pre-eclampsia (n = 16). This is the case-control hospital based study carried in the Department of Biochemistry, MGM Medical College and associated MY Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh.

Results There were no significant differences among the three groups in age and body mass index (BMI) (p > 0.05) but significantly higher differences in gestational age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed (p < 0.001). When comparison of serum calcium and serum magnesium between healthy normotensive nonpregnant women (9.87 ± 0.6 mg/dl, 2.60 ± 0.3 mg/dl) and healthy normotensive pregnant women was done, the levels were lower in the healthy normotensive pregnant women (9.34 ± 0.49 mg/dl, 2.36 ± 0.13 mg/dl) with statistically higher significant difference (p < 0.001). Lower mean values of serum calcium and serum magnesium were found in pre-eclamptic women (8.82 ± 0.93 mg/dl, 1.74 ± 0.24 mg/dl) than those of healthy normotensive nonpregnant women (9.87 ± 0.6 mg/dl, 2.60 ± 0.3 mg/dl) and healthy normotensive pregnant women (9.34 ± 0.49 mg/dl, 2.36 ± 0.13 mg/dl) in third trimester with statistically higher significant differences (p < 0.001). As compare to mild pre-eclamptic pregnant women (9.07 ± 0.8 mg/ dl, 1.77 ± 0.24 mg/dl), the levels of serum calcium and serum magnesium in severe pre-eclamptic pregnant women (8.25 ± 0.97 mg/dl 1.65 ± 0.24 mg/dl) was lower and the difference was significantly higher (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: These findings support the hypothesis that hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia are possible etiologies of pre-eclampsia and levels of calcium may be more important than magnesium.

Keywords: Calcitonin gene related peptide, Parathyroid hormone related peptide, Pre-eclampsia, Pregnancy-induced hypertension, Serum calcium, Serum magnesium.

How to cite this article: Varma V, Sogani S, Sarkar PD. Comparative Study of Serum Calcium and Magnesium in Pre-eclamptic Pregnancies in Third Trimester and its Comparison with Healthy Normotensive Nonpregnant and Pregnant Women and to Evaluate their role in Pregnancy-induced Hypertension. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(3):137-141.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Baliram V Ghodke, Ipseeta Ray-Mohanty, Rakesh Ghildiyal, Ajinkya Shounak, YA Deshmukh

Effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors on Psychomotor Function in Patients of Depression: A Comparative Study of Sertraline and Fluoxetine

[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:72-77][No of Hits : 771]


ABSTRACT

Aims and objectives: Depression is a most common and widespread of all psychiatric disorders. Treatment of depression includes the use of antidepressants, commonly used clinically, such as tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Certain antidepressants apart from improvement in the symptoms found to have detrimental effect on cognitive and psychomotor functions. Objective of this study was to assess and to compare the effect of sertraline and fluoxetine on cognitive and psychomotor functions.

Materials and methods: Effect of sertraline and fluoxetine on psychomotor function was assessed by using critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF) and reaction time (RT) in patients of mild to moderate depression at the end of 2nd and 4th week of mono therapy.

Results: Patients in both the group have their RT remained significantly higher (p < 0.001) in comparison with control and CFF remained significantly lower at the end of both the week except sertraline group in which CFF did not differ significantly from control at the end of 4th week. There was a significant rise in CFF (p < 0.05) in sertraline group as compared to fluoxetine. Sertraline showed a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in visual reaction time (VRT) at both the follow-ups and auditory reaction time (ART) (p < 0.01) at 4th week of monotherapy. Both the groups did not differ with respect to their effect on choice reaction time (CRT).

Conclusion: Findings of this study support the use of sertraline which had shown less impairment of psychomotor function in patients of depression as compared to fluoxetine, in special subgroups of population who operate machinery, drive vehicle or require alertness for the work.

Keywords: Antidepressants, Cognitive functions, Critical flicker fusion frequency, Reaction time.

How to cite this article: Ghodke BV, Ray-Mohanty I, Ghildiyal R, Shounak A, Deshmukh YA. Effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors on Psychomotor Function in Patients of Depression: A Comparative Study of Sertraline and Fluoxetine. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):72-77.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Review Article
Kashmira Bhusane, Rahul Gajbhiye, Uddhav Chaudhari, Geetanjali Sachdeva

Arrays to detect Erring Factors of Endometrial Origin in Endometriosis

[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:44-49][No of Hits : 720]


ABSTRACT

Endometriosis is an estrogen-regulated chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by the presence and growth of endometrium-like tissue in extrauterine locations. Its prevalence is 6 to 10% of women in the general population, and 35 to 40% of women with pain and/or infertility. Endometriosis is manifested in different forms, of which peritoneal endometriosis, rectovaginal endometriosis and ovarian endometriosis are most common. Several investigations have been conducted to investigate the genetic basis of endometriosis. However, these studies have been unsuccessful in identifying robust genetic variants associated with endometriosis. On the contrary, the advent of whole genome cDNA microarray approach has allowed for the identification of genes that display modulation in their expression in an endometriotic tissue. Several biological pathways involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis have been identified. This review article compiles the inferences drawn from high throughput investigations of endometriotic tissue.

Keywords: Endometriosis, Eutopic, Ectopic, Microarray.

How to cite this article: Bhusane K, Gajbhiye R, Chaudhari U, Sachdeva G. Arrays to detect Erring Factors of Endometrial Origin in Endometriosis. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(1):44-49.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Mansee Thakur, Sudhirchandra N Kadam

Nanotechnology: Applications in Clinical Practice

[Year:2015] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:56] [Pages No:153-160][No of Hits : 704]


ABSTRACT

Changelings were raised regarding the feasibility of application envisioned by researchers in the field of molecular nanotechnology culminated into a development of new technique in research which rose in all the stream of biology and information technology. The paper depicts about the use of nanotechnology in multifunctional areas of clinical practices briefly. It has now become possible to overcome many biological, biophysical, and biomedical barriers in health sector. The paper has not only highlighted the importance of nanotechnology in diagnostic, imaging, therapeutic relationships but also focused on an interrelationship of nanotechnology with other chains of research fields such as; information technology, biotechnology, and medicine.

Keywords: Biotechnology, Diagnosis, Medicine, Nanotechnology, Treatment.

How to cite this article: Thakur M, Kadam SN. Nanotechnology: Applications in Clinical Practice. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(3): 153-160.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Virendra Mahadik, Prasad Waingankar, Radha Taralekar, Seema Anjenaya, Pandurang Thatkar, Shrikant Pilewar

Gender Difference in Acute Poisoning Cases in an Urban Area in Navi Mumbai, India

[Year:2015] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:56] [Pages No:120-124][No of Hits : 687]


ABSTRACT

Background: Poisoning is a global health problem and one of the major causes of hospitalization through emergency department. In several studies, preponderance of males in younger age group and pesticide consumption has been reported.

Method: The present study was undertaken at MGM Hospital and Research Centre, Central Business District (CBD) Belapur, Navi Mumbai, India to study the epidemiological profile of acute poisoning cases; following a chance observation of female preponderance among poisoning cases attending the hospital. Acute poisoning cases, who visited the hospital during the period of five years from 1st July 2007 to 30th June 2012, were included in the study. The data were pooled into pre-designed variable structure for the analysis.

Results A total of 234 poisoning cases have been reported, majority of which, reside in neighboring areas of Belapur and Kharghar inhabited by middle to high income population group. Out of them, 172 (69.51%) patients were in the age group of 16 to 35 years and mean age was 26 years. The female to male ratio was 1.75:1 and contrary to other comparative studies, this reverse gender trend was found statistically significant (p < 0.001). A total of 137 (58.55%) poisoning cases were married. However, the proportion of married women?92/149 (61.74%), was statistically significant, placing young married women at higher risk of poisoning (p < 0.0001). In 32 (13.68%) cases, poisoning was accidental, while in remaining 202 (86.32%) deliberate self-harm (DSH) was the reason. Among the poisons consumed, psychotropic drugs (24.79%), insecticides (11.54%) and disinfectants (11.11%) constituted the bulk.

Conclusion: This is the first study, in Maharashtra and one among few in the country, which has reported high preponderance of young married women among poisoning cases. Adverse male to female ratio (1000:893) in Thane district where Navi Mumbai is located, coupled with findings of high incidence of acute poisoning in females, is a clear indication of social distress among women in this part of the country.

Keywords: Gender, Hospital information systems, Poisoning, Urban population.

How to cite this article: Mahadik V, Waingankar P, Taralekar R, Anjenaya S, Thatkar P, Pilewar S. Gender Difference in Acute Poisoning Cases in an Urban Area in Navi Mumbai, India. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(3):120-124.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Prasanta K Ghosh, Upasana Singh, Raman P Yadav

Predictive Perspectives of Disease—Transformed Protein Biomarkers

[Year:2015] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:56] [Pages No:142-148][No of Hits : 675]


ABSTRACT

With advancement in instrumentation, computation and understanding of disease etiology, proteomics has been expanded to harness the knowledge of change in protein folding and misfolding, protein-protein interaction, protein modification, etc. during progression of disease which is a source of discovery for various biomarkers including predictive biomarkers. Various methodologies for disease prediction are reported using ‘omics’ technology; however, advancement in proteomics with discovery of protein biomarker allows for the estimation of disease risk from years to decades before any disease even manifests internally. Specific proteins as disease biomarkers that appear in the body fluid/diseased tissues are generally measured. Recently, new proteomics technologies are also being developed in order to facilitate both the highthroughput and high-sensitivity requirements of diseaserelated applications of proteomics and possibly providing the framework for prediction of diseases. Therefore, there is a growing interest in proteomics technologies to discover processes that are involved in various diseases, to discover new biomarkers that correlates with the prediction and early detection of diseases. Now there is change in research thinking where already known biomarkers alone or in combination of others are under investigation for advanced application like in prediction and early detection of chronic diseases. In this review, we have emphasized the prediction perspective of some of the protein biomarkers like CA-125, Lp-PLA2 and tau protein for diseases like cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and Alzheimer’s respectively.

Keywords: CA-125, Lp-PLA2, Predictive biomarker, Protein biomarker, Tau protein.

How to cite this article: Ghosh PK, Singh U, Yadav RP. Predictive Perspectives of Disease-Transformed Protein Biomarkers. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(3):142-148.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Mahantayya V Math, Yashoda R Kattimani, Rita M Khadkikar, Rohit B Gadda, Ravindra S Inamdar

Biophysics and Surface Chemistry in Physiology

[Year:2015] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:56] [Pages No:149-152][No of Hits : 663]


ABSTRACT

Even though the physiology deals with the study of normal functions of the body the various physiological processes can be explained better with the help of underlying physical and chemical changes. The scientific progresses and advances in the subjects like physics, chemistry and biology gave us opportunity to apply principles of these sciences to understand the working of living organisms better. The underlying physical properties of lipids, water and their surface interaction led to the discovery of cell membrane.
The use of vegetable oil to calm the sea waves was known to mankind since 4000 BC since the time from Akkadian ruler Hammurabi, but the more scientific experiments in this area were done by Benjamin Franklin, Lord Rayleigh, Agnes Pockels and Irving Langmuir.
In this review we trace back the history of surface chemistry of lipids on water surface and their application in physiology.

Keywords: Lipid bilayers, Oil, Sea waves, Surface chemistry, Surface tension, Water.

How to cite this article: Math MV, Kattimani YR, Khadkikar RM, Gadda RB, Inamdar RS. Biophysics and Surface Chemistry in Physiology. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(3):149-152.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Jyoti Srivastava, Indira Sharma, Anuradha Khanna

Causes of Domestic Violence in Married Women with Psychotic and Non-psychotic Illness

[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:66-71][No of Hits : 656]


ABSTRACT

Background: Women are integral to all aspects of society. They are worshipped, but when it comes to dealing with them, much still remains. Women bear the burden of responsibility associated with being wives, mothers and carers of others. There is a dearth of casecontrol studies. Domestic violence in women with psychiatric morbidity has not received sufficient attention. Domestic violence can often lead to victims developing mental health problems, and people with mental health problems are more likely to experience domestic violence. People diagnosed with mental illness are more likely than others to be victims of domestic violence. Psychiatric morbidity as a determinant of domestic violence has received little attention. Indian culture is unique and there is limited work on domestic violence from Eastern Uttar Pradesh.

Objective: To assess the magnitude and compare the cause of domestic violence in married women with psychotic and nonpsychotic illness.

Materials and methods: Sixty-five women attending psychiatry outpatient department (OPD) of SSL Hospital with 35 women with psychotic illness and 30 nonpsychotic illness were studied for the magnitude of domestic violence by their husband. Domestic violence questionnaire was used. Women diagnosed as suffering from Axis-I disorder as per DSM IV TR.

Results: Significantly more women in psychotic illness than nonpsychotic illness reported domestic violence (total/ psychological and physical) by their husbands in past year (women with psychotic illness: 80% total/psychological violence; 65.7% physical violence and nonpsychotic illness: 50% total/ psychological violence; 43.3% physical violence). Total domestic violence with psychiatric morbidity was observed in 66.2%.

Conclusion: Women with psychotic illness have a higher reporting of domestic violence by their husbands during the past years. Women with mental disorders are likely to be victims of violence. Mental disorder may increase vulnerability to domestic violence by increasing the likelihood of women being in unsafe relationships and environments and increase their vulnerability to violent victimization.

Keywords: Domestic violence, Morbidity, Psychotic, Nonpsychotic, Married women, Mental illness.

How to cite this article: Srivastava J, Sharma I, Khanna A. Causes of Domestic Violence in Married Women with psychotic and Nonpsychotic Illness. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):66-71.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
Case Report
Jayant N Karbhase, Rajiv Kumar Srivastava, Shibban K Kaul, Archit Pankaj Patel, Sameer Sudhirchandra Kadam, Mrunal Langote

Pulmonary Thromboembolectomy in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: A Case Report and Review of Literature

[Year:2015] [Month:October-December] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:4] [Pages:49] [Pages No:215-220][No of Hits : 608]


ABSTRACT

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an important cause of severe pulmonary hypertention (PH) resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Chronic thromboembolic PH occurs when a pulmonary embolism fails to undergo complete thrombolysis leading to vascular occlusion and pulmonary hypertension. Despite the fact that CTEPH is a potential consequence of pulmonary embolus, diagnosis requires a high degree of vigilance as many patients will not have a history of thromboembolic disease. The ventilation perfusion scan is used to evaluate for the possibility of CTEPH although right heart catheterization and pulmonary artery (PA) angiogram are needed to confirm the diagnosis. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is the first-line treatment for patients who are surgical candidates. This case report and review describes the pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of CTEPH. As it is a potentially curable cause of PH, its accurate diagnosis is vital. The gold standard and effective treatment for CTEPH is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). Pulmonary endarterectomy is an uncommon procedure with less than 50 years of experience worldwide. Research on the development of new surgical approaches is essential. In the present case, a new successful surgical technique for PEA was introduced.

Conclusion: The surgical procedure used on the present patient was a unique technique. We do not claim that our technique is better than the original San Diego technique, but it is suggested as a modification that may improve patient survival. However, this procedure has its own limitations and cannot be used for clots that are located distally. Therefore, further experience should be obtained in order to overcome the limitations and improve the applicability of the technique.

Keywords: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, Interstitial lung disease, Pulmonary artery angiogram, Pulmonary endarterectomy, Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy.

How to cite this article: Karbhase JN, Srivastava RK, Kaul SK, Patel AP, Kadam SS, Langote M. Pulmonary Thromboembolectomy in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: A Case Report and Review of Literature. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(4):215-220.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
SR Sreeraj, Sarabjeet Kohli, Farhana Faridkhan Inamdar, Riddhi Shroff

Level of Recovery after Stable and Unstable Intertrochanteric Hip Fractures

[Year:2015] [Month:July-September] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:3] [Pages:56] [Pages No:125-130][No of Hits : 584]


ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hip fracture is a major public health problem because of its prevalence, economic costs, and health consequences. Intertrochanteric hip fractures account for approximately half of the hip fractures in the elderly; out of this more than 50% fractures are unstable. Displacement and stability of an intertrochanteric fracture are an important determinant of treatment.

Aims and objectives: To find out the level of recovery in different types of intertrochanteric hip fractures and to assess the functional capacity of patients who had an intertrochanteric hip fractures of different types.

Materials and methods: Fourteen subjects who underwent hip surgery for stable or unstable intertrochanteric fracture with internal fixation since 6 months to 1 year in the age group of 40 to 60 years were analyzed using the Harris hip score (HHS) to assess the level of recovery of the patient.

Results: Fourteen subjects with intertrochanteric fracture were recruited for the study. The pain component of HHS depicts that stable type of an intertrochanteric fracture displays a better mean pain score of 40.00 (SD = 0.00) compared to unstable t ype with a mean score of 3 6.29 (SD = 6.05) and the score for activity limitation concludes that there is less activity limitation in stable type compared to the unstable type of an intertrochanteric fracture with a mean score of 34.86 (SD = 6.69) and 23.86 (SD = 14.06) respectively. Deformity infers that stable type of intertrochanteric fracture shows less deformity at a score of 0.000 as compared to unstable type at 0.571 (SD = 1.51) and score for range of motion (ROM) is limited in stable type with a score of 3.86 (SD = 0.72) compared to 4.13 (SD = 0.55) scored by unstable type of intertrochanteric fracture group. The results for HHS shows stable type of intertrochanteric fracture displays a better HHS at 78.71 (SD = 6.18) compared to 64.85 (SD = 16.33) scored by unstable type group. A statistical comparison of HHS using Mann-Whitney U Statistic shows that there is no significant difference at 0.05 levels between stable and unstable type of intertrochanteric fracture groups.

Conclusion: This study concludes that a descriptive statistics